Node.js v12.12.0 文档


目录

命令行选项#

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Node.js 自带了各种命令行选项。 这些选项开放了内置的调试、执行脚本的多种方式、以及其他有用的运行时选项。

运行 man node 可在一个终端中查看操作手册。

概要#

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node [options] [V8 options] [script.js | -e "script" | -] [--] [arguments]

node inspect [script.js | -e "script" | <host>:<port>] …

node --v8-options

执行时不带参数,会启动 REPL

关于 node inspect 的更多信息,详见调试器文档。

选项#

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所有选项(包括 V8 选项)都允许单词用短划线(-)或下划线(_)分隔。

例如, --pending-deprecation 等同于 --pending_deprecation

-#

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stdin 的别名,类似于在其他命令行工具中使用 -,表示将会从 stdin 读取脚本,且其余的选项会传给该脚本。

--#

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指示 node 选项的结束。 其余的参数会被传给脚本。 如果在此之前没有提供脚本的文件名或 eval/print 脚本,则下一个参数将会被用作脚本的文件名。

--abort-on-uncaught-exception#

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Aborting instead of exiting causes a core file to be generated for post-mortem analysis using a debugger (such as lldb, gdb, and mdb).

If this flag is passed, the behavior can still be set to not abort through process.setUncaughtExceptionCaptureCallback() (and through usage of the domain module that uses it).

--completion-bash#

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Print source-able bash completion script for Node.js.

$ node --completion-bash > node_bash_completion
$ source node_bash_completion

--cpu-prof#

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Starts the V8 CPU profiler on start up, and writes the CPU profile to disk before exit.

If --cpu-prof-dir is not specified, the generated profile will be placed in the current working directory.

If --cpu-prof-name is not specified, the generated profile will be named CPU.${yyyymmdd}.${hhmmss}.${pid}.${tid}.${seq}.cpuprofile.

$ node --cpu-prof index.js
$ ls *.cpuprofile
CPU.20190409.202950.15293.0.0.cpuprofile

--cpu-prof-dir#

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Specify the directory where the CPU profiles generated by --cpu-prof will be placed.

--cpu-prof-interval#

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Specify the sampling interval in microseconds for the CPU profiles generated by --cpu-prof. The default is 1000 microseconds.

--cpu-prof-name#

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Specify the file name of the CPU profile generated by --cpu-prof.

--enable-fips#

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启动时启用符合 FIPS 标准的加密。 (需要 Node.js 使用 ./configure --openssl-fips 构建)

--enable-source-maps#

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Enable experimental Source Map V3 support for stack traces.

--es-module-specifier-resolution=mode#

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To be used in conjunction with --experimental-modules. Sets the resolution algorithm for resolving specifiers. Valid options are explicit and node.

The default is explicit, which requires providing the full path to a module. The node mode will enable support for optional file extensions and the ability to import a directory that has an index file.

Please see customizing esm specifier resolution for example usage.

--experimental-exports#

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Enable experimental resolution using the exports field in package.json.

--experimental-json-modules#

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Enable experimental JSON support for the ES Module loader.

--experimental-modules#

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Enable experimental ES module support and caching modules.

--experimental-policy#

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Use the specified file as a security policy.

--experimental-repl-await#

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Enable experimental top-level await keyword support in REPL.

--experimental-report#

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Enable experimental diagnostic report feature.

--experimental-vm-modules#

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Enable experimental ES Module support in the vm module.

--experimental-wasm-modules#

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Enable experimental WebAssembly module support.

--force-fips#

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启动时强制使用符合 FIPS 标准的加密。 (无法通过脚本代码禁用。) (要求同 --enable-fips

--frozen-intrinsics#

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Enable experimental frozen intrinsics like Array and Object.

Support is currently only provided for the root context and no guarantees are currently provided that global.Array is indeed the default intrinsic reference. Code may break under this flag.

--require runs prior to freezing intrinsics in order to allow polyfills to be added.

--heapsnapshot-signal=signal#

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Enables a signal handler that causes the Node.js process to write a heap dump when the specified signal is received.

$ node --heapsnapshot-signal=SIGUSR2 index.js &
$ ps aux
USER       PID %CPU %MEM    VSZ   RSS TTY      STAT START   TIME COMMAND
node         1  5.5  6.1 787252 247004 ?       Ssl  16:43   0:02 node --heapsnapshot-signal=SIGUSR2 index.js
$ kill -USR2 1
$ ls
Heap.20190718.133405.15554.0.001.heapsnapshot

--heap-prof#

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Starts the V8 heap profiler on start up, and writes the heap profile to disk before exit.

If --heap-prof-dir is not specified, the generated profile will be placed in the current working directory.

If --heap-prof-name is not specified, the generated profile will be named Heap.${yyyymmdd}.${hhmmss}.${pid}.${tid}.${seq}.heapprofile.

$ node --heap-prof index.js
$ ls *.heapprofile
Heap.20190409.202950.15293.0.001.heapprofile

--heap-prof-dir#

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Specify the directory where the heap profiles generated by --heap-prof will be placed.

--heap-prof-interval#

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稳定性: 1 - 试验

Specify the average sampling interval in bytes for the heap profiles generated by --heap-prof. The default is 512 * 1024 bytes.

--heap-prof-name#

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Specify the file name of the heap profile generated by --heap-prof.

Generates a heap snapshot each time the process receives the specified signal. signal must be a valid signal name. Disabled by default.

--http-parser=library#

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Chooses an HTTP parser library. Available values are:

The default is llhttp, unless otherwise specified when building Node.js.

This flag exists to aid in experimentation with the internal implementation of the Node.js http parser. This flag is likely to become a no-op and removed at some point in the future.

--http-server-default-timeout=milliseconds#

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Overrides the default value of http, https and http2 server socket timeout. Setting the value to 0 disables server socket timeout. Unless provided, http server sockets timeout after 120s (2 minutes). Programmatic setting of the timeout takes precedence over the value set through this flag.

--icu-data-dir=file#

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指定 ICU 数据的加载路径。 (覆盖 NODE_ICU_DATA

--input-type=type#

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Used with --experimental-modules, this configures Node.js to interpret string input as CommonJS or as an ES module. String input is input via --eval, --print, or STDIN.

Valid values are "commonjs" and "module". The default is "commonjs".

--inspect-brk[=[host:]port]#

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Activate inspector on host:port and break at start of user script. Default host:port is 127.0.0.1:9229.

--inspect-port=[host:]port#

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Set the host:port to be used when the inspector is activated. Useful when activating the inspector by sending the SIGUSR1 signal.

Default host is 127.0.0.1.

See the security warning below regarding the host parameter usage.

--inspect[=[host:]port]#

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host:port 上激活检查器。 默认为 127.0.0.1:9229

V8检查器集成允许 Chrome DevTools 和 IDE 等工具调试和配置 Node.js 实例。 这些工具通过 tcp 端口附加到 Node.js 实例,并使用 Chrome DevTools 协议进行通信.

注意:绑定检查器到公共的“IP:端口”组合是不安全的#

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Binding the inspector to a public IP (including 0.0.0.0) with an open port is insecure, as it allows external hosts to connect to the inspector and perform a remote code execution attack.

If specifying a host, make sure that either:

  • The host is not accessible from public networks.
  • A firewall disallows unwanted connections on the port.

More specifically, --inspect=0.0.0.0 is insecure if the port (9229 by default) is not firewall-protected.

See the debugging security implications section for more information.

--inspect-publish-uid=stderr,http#

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Specify ways of the inspector web socket url exposure.

By default inspector websocket url is available in stderr and under /json/list endpoint on http://host:port/json/list.

--experimental-loader=module#

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Specify the module of a custom experimental ECMAScript Module loader. module may be either a path to a file, or an ECMAScript Module name.

--max-http-header-size=size#

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Specify the maximum size, in bytes, of HTTP headers. Defaults to 8KB.

--napi-modules#

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This option is a no-op. It is kept for compatibility.

--no-deprecation#

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静默废弃的警告。

--no-force-async-hooks-checks#

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Disables runtime checks for async_hooks. These will still be enabled dynamically when async_hooks is enabled.

--no-warnings#

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静默一切进程警告(包括废弃警告)。

--force-context-aware#

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Disable loading native addons that are not context-aware.

--openssl-config=file#

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启动时加载 OpenSSL 配置文件。 在其他用途中,如果 Node.js 使用 ./configure --openssl-fips 构建,它可以用于启用符合 FIPS 标准的加密。

--pending-deprecation#

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Emit pending deprecation warnings.

Pending deprecations are generally identical to a runtime deprecation with the notable exception that they are turned off by default and will not be emitted unless either the --pending-deprecation command line flag, or the NODE_PENDING_DEPRECATION=1 environment variable, is set. Pending deprecations are used to provide a kind of selective "early warning" mechanism that developers may leverage to detect deprecated API usage.

--policy-integrity=sri#

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稳定性: 1 - 试验

Instructs Node.js to error prior to running any code if the policy does not have the specified integrity. It expects a Subresource Integrity string as a parameter.

--preserve-symlinks#

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当解析和缓存模块时,命令模块加载器保持符号连接。

默认情况下,当 Node.js 从一个被符号连接到另一块磁盘位置的路径加载一个模块时,Node.js 会解引用该连接,并使用模块的真实磁盘的实际路径,作为定位其他依赖模块的标识符和根路径。 大多数情况下,默认行为是可接受的。 但是,当使用符号连接的同行依赖,如下例子所描述的,如果 moduleA 试图引入 moduleB 作为一个同行依赖,默认行为就会抛出异常:

{appDir}
 ├── app
 │   ├── index.js
 │   └── node_modules
 │       ├── moduleA -> {appDir}/moduleA
 │       └── moduleB
 │           ├── index.js
 │           └── package.json
 └── moduleA
     ├── index.js
     └── package.json

--preserve-symlinks 命令行标志命令 Node.js 使用模块的符号路径而不是真实路径,是符号连接的同行依赖能被找到。

注意,使用 --preserve-symlinks 会有其他方面的影响。 比如,如果符号连接的原生模块在依赖树里来自超过一个位置,它们会加载失败。 (Node.js 会将它们视为两个独立的模块,且会试图多次加载模块,造成抛出异常。)

--preserve-symlinks 标志不适用于主模块,它允许 node --preserve-symlinks node_module/.bin/<foo> 工作。 要对主模块应用相同的行为,也可使用 --preserve-symlinks-main

--preserve-symlinks-main#

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Instructs the module loader to preserve symbolic links when resolving and caching the main module (require.main).

This flag exists so that the main module can be opted-in to the same behavior that --preserve-symlinks gives to all other imports; they are separate flags, however, for backward compatibility with older Node.js versions.

--preserve-symlinks-main does not imply --preserve-symlinks; it is expected that --preserve-symlinks-main will be used in addition to --preserve-symlinks when it is not desirable to follow symlinks before resolving relative paths.

See --preserve-symlinks for more information.

--prof#

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Generate V8 profiler output.

--prof-process#

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处理 V8 分析器的输出,通过使用 V8 选项 --prof 生成。

--redirect-warnings=file#

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Write process warnings to the given file instead of printing to stderr. The file will be created if it does not exist, and will be appended to if it does. If an error occurs while attempting to write the warning to the file, the warning will be written to stderr instead.

--report-directory=directory#

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Location at which the report will be generated.

--report-filename=filename#

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Name of the file to which the report will be written.

--report-on-fatalerror#

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Enables the report to be triggered on fatal errors (internal errors within the Node.js runtime such as out of memory) that lead to termination of the application, if --experimental-report is enabled. Useful to inspect various diagnostic data elements such as heap, stack, event loop state, resource consumption etc. to reason about the fatal error.

--report-on-signal#

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Enables report to be generated upon receiving the specified (or predefined) signal to the running Node.js process, if --experimental-report is enabled. The signal to trigger the report is specified through --report-signal.

--report-signal=signal#

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Sets or resets the signal for report generation (not supported on Windows). Default signal is SIGUSR2.

--report-uncaught-exception#

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Enables report to be generated on un-caught exceptions, if --experimental-report is enabled. Useful when inspecting JavaScript stack in conjunction with native stack and other runtime environment data.

--throw-deprecation#

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抛出废弃的错误。

--title=title#

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Set process.title on startup.

--tls-cipher-list=list#

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指定备用的默认 TLS 加密列表。 需要 Node.js 被构建为支持加密(默认)。

--tls-max-v1.2#

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Set tls.DEFAULT_MAX_VERSION to 'TLSv1.2'. Use to disable support for TLSv1.3.

--tls-max-v1.3#

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Set default tls.DEFAULT_MAX_VERSION to 'TLSv1.3'. Use to enable support for TLSv1.3.

--tls-min-v1.0#

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Set default tls.DEFAULT_MIN_VERSION to 'TLSv1'. Use for compatibility with old TLS clients or servers.

--tls-min-v1.1#

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Set default tls.DEFAULT_MIN_VERSION to 'TLSv1.1'. Use for compatibility with old TLS clients or servers.

--tls-min-v1.2#

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Set default tls.DEFAULT_MIN_VERSION to 'TLSv1.2'. This is the default for 12.x and later, but the option is supported for compatibility with older Node.js versions.

--tls-min-v1.3#

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Set default tls.DEFAULT_MIN_VERSION to 'TLSv1.3'. Use to disable support for TLSv1.2, which is not as secure as TLSv1.3.

--trace-deprecation#

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打印废弃的堆栈跟踪。

--trace-event-categories#

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A comma separated list of categories that should be traced when trace event tracing is enabled using --trace-events-enabled.

--trace-event-file-pattern#

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Template string specifying the filepath for the trace event data, it supports ${rotation} and ${pid}.

--trace-events-enabled#

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Enables the collection of trace event tracing information.

--trace-sync-io#

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每当事件循环的第一帧之后检测到同步 I/O 时,打印堆栈跟踪。

--trace-tls#

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Prints TLS packet trace information to stderr. This can be used to debug TLS connection problems.

--trace-warnings#

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打印进程警告的堆栈跟踪(包括废弃警告)。

--track-heap-objects#

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为堆快照追踪堆栈对象的分配。

--unhandled-rejections=mode#

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By default all unhandled rejections trigger a warning plus a deprecation warning for the very first unhandled rejection in case no unhandledRejection hook is used.

Using this flag allows to change what should happen when an unhandled rejection occurs. One of three modes can be chosen:

  • strict: Raise the unhandled rejection as an uncaught exception.
  • warn: Always trigger a warning, no matter if the unhandledRejection hook is set or not but do not print the deprecation warning.
  • none: Silence all warnings.

--use-bundled-ca, --use-openssl-ca#

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Use bundled Mozilla CA store as supplied by current Node.js version or use OpenSSL's default CA store. The default store is selectable at build-time.

The bundled CA store, as supplied by Node.js, is a snapshot of Mozilla CA store that is fixed at release time. It is identical on all supported platforms.

Using OpenSSL store allows for external modifications of the store. For most Linux and BSD distributions, this store is maintained by the distribution maintainers and system administrators. OpenSSL CA store location is dependent on configuration of the OpenSSL library but this can be altered at runtime using environment variables.

See SSL_CERT_DIR and SSL_CERT_FILE.

--v8-options#

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打印 V8 命令行选项。

--v8-pool-size=num#

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Set V8's thread pool size which will be used to allocate background jobs.

If set to 0 then V8 will choose an appropriate size of the thread pool based on the number of online processors.

If the value provided is larger than V8's maximum, then the largest value will be chosen.

--zero-fill-buffers#

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自动用 0 填充所有新分配的 BufferSlowBuffer 实例。

-c, --check#

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在不执行的情况下,对脚本进行语法检查。

-e, --eval "script"#

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把跟随的参数作为 JavaScript 来执行。 在 REPL 中预定义的模块也可以在 script 中使用。

在 Windows 上,使用 cmd.exe 单引号将会无法正常工作,因为它只识别双引号 "。 在 Powershell 或 Git bash 中, '" 都可用。

-h, --help#

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打印 node 的命令行选项。 此选项的输出不如本文档详细。

-i, --interactive#

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打开 REPL,即使 stdin 看起来不像终端。

-p, --print "script"#

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-e 相同,但会打印结果。

-r, --require module#

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在启动时预加载指定的模块。

遵循 require() 的模块解析规则。 module 可以是一个文件的路径,或一个 node 模块名称。

-v, --version#

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打印 node 的版本号。

环境变量#

NODE_DEBUG=module[,…]#

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',' 分隔的应该打印调试信息的核心模块列表。

NODE_DEBUG_NATIVE=module[,…]#

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','-separated list of core C++ modules that should print debug information.

NODE_DISABLE_COLORS=1#

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当有设置时,不会在 REPL 中使用颜色。

NODE_EXTRA_CA_CERTS=file#

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当设置了此选项时,根 CA 证书(如 VeriSign)会被 file 指定的证书扩展。 文件应该包括一个或多个可信的 PEM 格式的证书。 如果文件丢失或有缺陷,则 process.emitWarning() 会触发一个消息。

当一个 TLS 或 HTTPS 的客户端或服务器的 ca 选项的属性被显式地指定时,则指定的证书不会被使用。

node 以 setuid root 运行或设置了 Linux 文件功能时,将会忽略此环境变量。

NODE_ICU_DATA=file#

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ICU(Intl 对象)数据的数据路径。 当使用 small-icu 编译时,扩展链接的数据。

NODE_NO_WARNINGS=1#

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When set to 1, process warnings are silenced.

NODE_OPTIONS=options...#

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A space-separated list of command line options. options... are interpreted before command line options, so command line options will override or compound after anything in options.... Node.js will exit with an error if an option that is not allowed in the environment is used, such as -p or a script file.

In case an option value happens to contain a space (for example a path listed in --require), it must be escaped using double quotes. For example:

NODE_OPTIONS='--require "./my path/file.js"'

A singleton flag passed as a command line option will override the same flag passed into NODE_OPTIONS:

# The inspector will be available on port 5555
NODE_OPTIONS='--inspect=localhost:4444' node --inspect=localhost:5555

A flag that can be passed multiple times will be treated as if its NODE_OPTIONS instances were passed first, and then its command line instances afterwards:

NODE_OPTIONS='--require "./a.js"' node --require "./b.js"
# is equivalent to:
node --require "./a.js" --require "./b.js"

Node.js options that are allowed are:

  • --enable-fips
  • --enable-source-maps
  • --es-module-specifier-resolution
  • --experimental-exports
  • --experimental-json-modules
  • --experimental-loader
  • --experimental-modules
  • --experimental-policy
  • --experimental-repl-await
  • --experimental-report
  • --experimental-vm-modules
  • --experimental-wasm-modules
  • --force-context-aware
  • --force-fips
  • --frozen-intrinsics
  • --heapsnapshot-signal
  • --http-parser
  • --http-server-default-timeout
  • --icu-data-dir
  • --input-type
  • --inspect-brk
  • --inspect-port, --debug-port
  • --inspect-publish-uid
  • --inspect
  • --max-http-header-size
  • --napi-modules
  • --no-deprecation
  • --no-force-async-hooks-checks
  • --no-warnings
  • --openssl-config
  • --pending-deprecation
  • --policy-integrity
  • --preserve-symlinks-main
  • --preserve-symlinks
  • --prof-process
  • --redirect-warnings
  • --report-directory
  • --report-filename
  • --report-on-fatalerror
  • --report-on-signal
  • --report-signal
  • --report-uncaught-exception
  • --require, -r
  • --throw-deprecation
  • --title
  • --tls-cipher-list
  • --tls-max-v1.2
  • --tls-max-v1.3
  • --tls-min-v1.0
  • --tls-min-v1.1
  • --tls-min-v1.2
  • --tls-min-v1.3
  • --trace-deprecation
  • --trace-event-categories
  • --trace-event-file-pattern
  • --trace-events-enabled
  • --trace-sync-io
  • --trace-tls
  • --trace-warnings
  • --track-heap-objects
  • --unhandled-rejections
  • --use-bundled-ca
  • --use-openssl-ca
  • --v8-pool-size
  • --zero-fill-buffers

V8 options that are allowed are:

  • --abort-on-uncaught-exception
  • --interpreted-frames-native-stack
  • --max-old-space-size
  • --perf-basic-prof-only-functions
  • --perf-basic-prof
  • --perf-prof-unwinding-info
  • --perf-prof
  • --stack-trace-limit

NODE_PATH=path[:…]#

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':' 分隔的有模块搜索路径作前缀的目录列表。

在 Windows 中,列表是用 ';' 分隔的。

NODE_PENDING_DEPRECATION=1#

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When set to 1, emit pending deprecation warnings.

Pending deprecations are generally identical to a runtime deprecation with the notable exception that they are turned off by default and will not be emitted unless either the --pending-deprecation command line flag, or the NODE_PENDING_DEPRECATION=1 environment variable, is set. Pending deprecations are used to provide a kind of selective "early warning" mechanism that developers may leverage to detect deprecated API usage.

NODE_PENDING_PIPE_INSTANCES=instances#

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Set the number of pending pipe instance handles when the pipe server is waiting for connections. This setting applies to Windows only.

NODE_PRESERVE_SYMLINKS=1#

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When set to 1, instructs the module loader to preserve symbolic links when resolving and caching modules.

NODE_REDIRECT_WARNINGS=file#

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When set, process warnings will be emitted to the given file instead of printing to stderr. The file will be created if it does not exist, and will be appended to if it does. If an error occurs while attempting to write the warning to the file, the warning will be written to stderr instead. This is equivalent to using the --redirect-warnings=file command-line flag.

NODE_REPL_HISTORY=file#

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用于存储持久性的 REPL 历史记录的文件的路径。 默认路径是 ~/.node_repl_history,可被该变量覆盖。 将值设为空字符串(''' ')会禁用持久性的 REPL 历史记录。

NODE_TLS_REJECT_UNAUTHORIZED=value#

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If value equals '0', certificate validation is disabled for TLS connections. This makes TLS, and HTTPS by extension, insecure. The use of this environment variable is strongly discouraged.

NODE_V8_COVERAGE=dir#

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When set, Node.js will begin outputting V8 JavaScript code coverage and Source Map data to the directory provided as an argument (coverage information is written as JSON to files with a coverage prefix).

NODE_V8_COVERAGE will automatically propagate to subprocesses, making it easier to instrument applications that call the child_process.spawn() family of functions. NODE_V8_COVERAGE can be set to an empty string, to prevent propagation.

覆盖范围的输出#

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Coverage is output as an array of ScriptCoverage objects on the top-level key result:

{
  "result": [
    {
      "scriptId": "67",
      "url": "internal/tty.js",
      "functions": []
    }
  ]
}

源码映射的缓存#

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稳定性: 1 - 试验

If found, Source Map data is appended to the top-level key source-map-cache on the JSON coverage object.

source-map-cache is an object with keys representing the files source maps were extracted from, and the values include the raw source-map URL (in the key url) and the parsed Source Map V3 information (in the key data).

{
  "result": [
    {
      "scriptId": "68",
      "url": "file:///absolute/path/to/source.js",
      "functions": []
    }
  ],
  "source-map-cache": {
    "file:///absolute/path/to/source.js": {
      "url": "./path-to-map.json",
      "data": {
        "version": 3,
        "sources": [
          "file:///absolute/path/to/original.js"
        ],
        "names": [
          "Foo",
          "console",
          "info"
        ],
        "mappings": "MAAMA,IACJC,YAAaC",
        "sourceRoot": "./"
      }
    }
  }
}

OPENSSL_CONF=file#

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Load an OpenSSL configuration file on startup. Among other uses, this can be used to enable FIPS-compliant crypto if Node.js is built with ./configure --openssl-fips.

If the --openssl-config command line option is used, the environment variable is ignored.

SSL_CERT_DIR=dir#

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If --use-openssl-ca is enabled, this overrides and sets OpenSSL's directory containing trusted certificates.

Be aware that unless the child environment is explicitly set, this environment variable will be inherited by any child processes, and if they use OpenSSL, it may cause them to trust the same CAs as node.

SSL_CERT_FILE=file#

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If --use-openssl-ca is enabled, this overrides and sets OpenSSL's file containing trusted certificates.

Be aware that unless the child environment is explicitly set, this environment variable will be inherited by any child processes, and if they use OpenSSL, it may cause them to trust the same CAs as node.

UV_THREADPOOL_SIZE=size#

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Set the number of threads used in libuv's threadpool to size threads.

Asynchronous system APIs are used by Node.js whenever possible, but where they do not exist, libuv's threadpool is used to create asynchronous node APIs based on synchronous system APIs. Node.js APIs that use the threadpool are:

  • all fs APIs, other than the file watcher APIs and those that are explicitly synchronous
  • asynchronous crypto APIs such as crypto.pbkdf2(), crypto.scrypt(), crypto.randomBytes(), crypto.randomFill(), crypto.generateKeyPair()
  • dns.lookup()
  • all zlib APIs, other than those that are explicitly synchronous

Because libuv's threadpool has a fixed size, it means that if for whatever reason any of these APIs takes a long time, other (seemingly unrelated) APIs that run in libuv's threadpool will experience degraded performance. In order to mitigate this issue, one potential solution is to increase the size of libuv's threadpool by setting the 'UV_THREADPOOL_SIZE' environment variable to a value greater than 4 (its current default value). For more information, see the libuv threadpool documentation.