Node.js v16.9.1 文档


目录

异步上下文跟踪#

稳定性: 2 - 稳定

源代码: lib/async_hooks.js

介绍#

These classes are used to associate state and propagate it throughout callbacks and promise chains. They allow storing data throughout the lifetime of a web request or any other asynchronous duration. It is similar to thread-local storage in other languages.

The AsyncLocalStorage and AsyncResource classes are part of the async_hooks module:

import async_hooks from 'async_hooks';const async_hooks = require('async_hooks');

AsyncLocalStorage#

This class creates stores that stay coherent through asynchronous operations.

While you can create your own implementation on top of the async_hooks module, AsyncLocalStorage should be preferred as it is a performant and memory safe implementation that involves significant optimizations that are non-obvious to implement.

The following example uses AsyncLocalStorage to build a simple logger that assigns IDs to incoming HTTP requests and includes them in messages logged within each request.

import http from 'http';
import { AsyncLocalStorage } from 'async_hooks';

const asyncLocalStorage = new AsyncLocalStorage();

function logWithId(msg) {
  const id = asyncLocalStorage.getStore();
  console.log(`${id !== undefined ? id : '-'}:`, msg);
}

let idSeq = 0;
http.createServer((req, res) => {
  asyncLocalStorage.run(idSeq++, () => {
    logWithId('start');
    // Imagine any chain of async operations here
    setImmediate(() => {
      logWithId('finish');
      res.end();
    });
  });
}).listen(8080);

http.get('http://localhost:8080');
http.get('http://localhost:8080');
// Prints:
//   0: start
//   1: start
//   0: finish
//   1: finishconst http = require('http');
const { AsyncLocalStorage } = require('async_hooks');

const asyncLocalStorage = new AsyncLocalStorage();

function logWithId(msg) {
  const id = asyncLocalStorage.getStore();
  console.log(`${id !== undefined ? id : '-'}:`, msg);
}

let idSeq = 0;
http.createServer((req, res) => {
  asyncLocalStorage.run(idSeq++, () => {
    logWithId('start');
    // Imagine any chain of async operations here
    setImmediate(() => {
      logWithId('finish');
      res.end();
    });
  });
}).listen(8080);

http.get('http://localhost:8080');
http.get('http://localhost:8080');
// Prints:
//   0: start
//   1: start
//   0: finish
//   1: finish

Each instance of AsyncLocalStorage maintains an independent storage context. Multiple instances can safely exist simultaneously without risk of interfering with each other data.

new AsyncLocalStorage()#

Creates a new instance of AsyncLocalStorage. Store is only provided within a run() call or after an enterWith() call.

asyncLocalStorage.disable()#

稳定性: 1 - 实验

Disables the instance of AsyncLocalStorage. All subsequent calls to asyncLocalStorage.getStore() will return undefined until asyncLocalStorage.run() or asyncLocalStorage.enterWith() is called again.

When calling asyncLocalStorage.disable(), all current contexts linked to the instance will be exited.

Calling asyncLocalStorage.disable() is required before the asyncLocalStorage can be garbage collected. This does not apply to stores provided by the asyncLocalStorage, as those objects are garbage collected along with the corresponding async resources.

Use this method when the asyncLocalStorage is not in use anymore in the current process.

asyncLocalStorage.getStore()#

Returns the current store. If called outside of an asynchronous context initialized by calling asyncLocalStorage.run() or asyncLocalStorage.enterWith(), it returns undefined.

asyncLocalStorage.enterWith(store)#

稳定性: 1 - 实验

Transitions into the context for the remainder of the current synchronous execution and then persists the store through any following asynchronous calls.

Example:

const store = { id: 1 };
// Replaces previous store with the given store object
asyncLocalStorage.enterWith(store);
asyncLocalStorage.getStore(); // Returns the store object
someAsyncOperation(() => {
  asyncLocalStorage.getStore(); // Returns the same object
});

This transition will continue for the entire synchronous execution. This means that if, for example, the context is entered within an event handler subsequent event handlers will also run within that context unless specifically bound to another context with an AsyncResource. That is why run() should be preferred over enterWith() unless there are strong reasons to use the latter method.

const store = { id: 1 };

emitter.on('my-event', () => {
  asyncLocalStorage.enterWith(store);
});
emitter.on('my-event', () => {
  asyncLocalStorage.getStore(); // Returns the same object
});

asyncLocalStorage.getStore(); // Returns undefined
emitter.emit('my-event');
asyncLocalStorage.getStore(); // Returns the same object

asyncLocalStorage.run(store, callback[, ...args])#

Runs a function synchronously within a context and returns its return value. The store is not accessible outside of the callback function or the asynchronous operations created within the callback.

The optional args are passed to the callback function.

If the callback function throws an error, the error is thrown by run() too. The stacktrace is not impacted by this call and the context is exited.

Example:

const store = { id: 2 };
try {
  asyncLocalStorage.run(store, () => {
    asyncLocalStorage.getStore(); // Returns the store object
    throw new Error();
  });
} catch (e) {
  asyncLocalStorage.getStore(); // Returns undefined
  // The error will be caught here
}

asyncLocalStorage.exit(callback[, ...args])#

稳定性: 1 - 实验

Runs a function synchronously outside of a context and returns its return value. The store is not accessible within the callback function or the asynchronous operations created within the callback. Any getStore() call done within the callback function will always return undefined.

The optional args are passed to the callback function.

If the callback function throws an error, the error is thrown by exit() too. The stacktrace is not impacted by this call and the context is re-entered.

Example:

// Within a call to run
try {
  asyncLocalStorage.getStore(); // Returns the store object or value
  asyncLocalStorage.exit(() => {
    asyncLocalStorage.getStore(); // Returns undefined
    throw new Error();
  });
} catch (e) {
  asyncLocalStorage.getStore(); // Returns the same object or value
  // The error will be caught here
}

与 async/await 一起使用#

If, within an async function, only one await call is to run within a context, the following pattern should be used:

async function fn() {
  await asyncLocalStorage.run(new Map(), () => {
    asyncLocalStorage.getStore().set('key', value);
    return foo(); // The return value of foo will be awaited
  });
}

In this example, the store is only available in the callback function and the functions called by foo. Outside of run, calling getStore will return undefined.

故障排除:上下文丢失#

In most cases your application or library code should have no issues with AsyncLocalStorage. But in rare cases you may face situations when the current store is lost in one of the asynchronous operations. In those cases, consider the following options.

If your code is callback-based, it is enough to promisify it with util.promisify(), so it starts working with native promises.

If you need to keep using callback-based API, or your code assumes a custom thenable implementation, use the AsyncResource class to associate the asynchronous operation with the correct execution context. To do so, you will need to identify the function call responsible for the context loss. You can do that by logging the content of asyncLocalStorage.getStore() after the calls you suspect are responsible for the loss. When the code logs undefined, the last callback called is probably responsible for the context loss.

AsyncResource#

The class AsyncResource is designed to be extended by the embedder's async resources. Using this, users can easily trigger the lifetime events of their own resources.

The init hook will trigger when an AsyncResource is instantiated.

The following is an overview of the AsyncResource API.

import { AsyncResource, executionAsyncId } from 'async_hooks';

// AsyncResource() is meant to be extended. Instantiating a
// new AsyncResource() also triggers init. If triggerAsyncId is omitted then
// async_hook.executionAsyncId() is used.
const asyncResource = new AsyncResource(
  type, { triggerAsyncId: executionAsyncId(), requireManualDestroy: false }
);

// Run a function in the execution context of the resource. This will
// * establish the context of the resource
// * trigger the AsyncHooks before callbacks
// * call the provided function `fn` with the supplied arguments
// * trigger the AsyncHooks after callbacks
// * restore the original execution context
asyncResource.runInAsyncScope(fn, thisArg, ...args);

// Call AsyncHooks destroy callbacks.
asyncResource.emitDestroy();

// Return the unique ID assigned to the AsyncResource instance.
asyncResource.asyncId();

// Return the trigger ID for the AsyncResource instance.
asyncResource.triggerAsyncId();const { AsyncResource, executionAsyncId } = require('async_hooks');

// AsyncResource() is meant to be extended. Instantiating a
// new AsyncResource() also triggers init. If triggerAsyncId is omitted then
// async_hook.executionAsyncId() is used.
const asyncResource = new AsyncResource(
  type, { triggerAsyncId: executionAsyncId(), requireManualDestroy: false }
);

// Run a function in the execution context of the resource. This will
// * establish the context of the resource
// * trigger the AsyncHooks before callbacks
// * call the provided function `fn` with the supplied arguments
// * trigger the AsyncHooks after callbacks
// * restore the original execution context
asyncResource.runInAsyncScope(fn, thisArg, ...args);

// Call AsyncHooks destroy callbacks.
asyncResource.emitDestroy();

// Return the unique ID assigned to the AsyncResource instance.
asyncResource.asyncId();

// Return the trigger ID for the AsyncResource instance.
asyncResource.triggerAsyncId();

new AsyncResource(type[, options])#

  • type <string> The type of async event.
  • options <Object>
    • triggerAsyncId <number> The ID of the execution context that created this async event. 默认值: executionAsyncId()
    • requireManualDestroy <boolean> If set to true, disables emitDestroy when the object is garbage collected. This usually does not need to be set (even if emitDestroy is called manually), unless the resource's asyncId is retrieved and the sensitive API's emitDestroy is called with it. When set to false, the emitDestroy call on garbage collection will only take place if there is at least one active destroy hook. 默认值: false

Example usage:

class DBQuery extends AsyncResource {
  constructor(db) {
    super('DBQuery');
    this.db = db;
  }

  getInfo(query, callback) {
    this.db.get(query, (err, data) => {
      this.runInAsyncScope(callback, null, err, data);
    });
  }

  close() {
    this.db = null;
    this.emitDestroy();
  }
}

AsyncResource.bind(fn[, type, [thisArg]])#

  • fn <Function> The function to bind to the current execution context.
  • type <string> An optional name to associate with the underlying AsyncResource.
  • thisArg <any>

Binds the given function to the current execution context.

The returned function will have an asyncResource property referencing the AsyncResource to which the function is bound.

asyncResource.bind(fn[, thisArg])#

  • fn <Function> The function to bind to the current AsyncResource.
  • thisArg <any>

Binds the given function to execute to this AsyncResource's scope.

The returned function will have an asyncResource property referencing the AsyncResource to which the function is bound.

asyncResource.runInAsyncScope(fn[, thisArg, ...args])#

  • fn <Function> The function to call in the execution context of this async resource.
  • thisArg <any> The receiver to be used for the function call.
  • ...args <any> Optional arguments to pass to the function.

Call the provided function with the provided arguments in the execution context of the async resource. This will establish the context, trigger the AsyncHooks before callbacks, call the function, trigger the AsyncHooks after callbacks, and then restore the original execution context.

asyncResource.emitDestroy()#

Call all destroy hooks. This should only ever be called once. An error will be thrown if it is called more than once. This must be manually called. If the resource is left to be collected by the GC then the destroy hooks will never be called.

asyncResource.asyncId()#

  • 返回: <number> The unique asyncId assigned to the resource.

asyncResource.triggerAsyncId()#

  • 返回: <number> The same triggerAsyncId that is passed to the AsyncResource constructor.

将 AsyncResource 用于工作线程池#

The following example shows how to use the AsyncResource class to properly provide async tracking for a Worker pool. Other resource pools, such as database connection pools, can follow a similar model.

Assuming that the task is adding two numbers, using a file named task_processor.js with the following content:

import { parentPort } from 'worker_threads';
parentPort.on('message', (task) => {
  parentPort.postMessage(task.a + task.b);
});const { parentPort } = require('worker_threads');
parentPort.on('message', (task) => {
  parentPort.postMessage(task.a + task.b);
});

a Worker pool around it could use the following structure:

import { AsyncResource } from 'async_hooks';
import { EventEmitter } from 'events';
import path from 'path';
import { Worker } from 'worker_threads';

const kTaskInfo = Symbol('kTaskInfo');
const kWorkerFreedEvent = Symbol('kWorkerFreedEvent');

class WorkerPoolTaskInfo extends AsyncResource {
  constructor(callback) {
    super('WorkerPoolTaskInfo');
    this.callback = callback;
  }

  done(err, result) {
    this.runInAsyncScope(this.callback, null, err, result);
    this.emitDestroy();  // `TaskInfo`s are used only once.
  }
}

export default class WorkerPool extends EventEmitter {
  constructor(numThreads) {
    super();
    this.numThreads = numThreads;
    this.workers = [];
    this.freeWorkers = [];
    this.tasks = [];

    for (let i = 0; i < numThreads; i++)
      this.addNewWorker();

    // Any time the kWorkerFreedEvent is emitted, dispatch
    // the next task pending in the queue, if any.
    this.on(kWorkerFreedEvent, () => {
      if (this.tasks.length > 0) {
        const { task, callback } = this.tasks.shift();
        this.runTask(task, callback);
      }
    });
  }

  addNewWorker() {
    const worker = new Worker(new URL('task_processer.js', import.meta.url));
    worker.on('message', (result) => {
      // In case of success: Call the callback that was passed to `runTask`,
      // remove the `TaskInfo` associated with the Worker, and mark it as free
      // again.
      worker[kTaskInfo].done(null, result);
      worker[kTaskInfo] = null;
      this.freeWorkers.push(worker);
      this.emit(kWorkerFreedEvent);
    });
    worker.on('error', (err) => {
      // In case of an uncaught exception: Call the callback that was passed to
      // `runTask` with the error.
      if (worker[kTaskInfo])
        worker[kTaskInfo].done(err, null);
      else
        this.emit('error', err);
      // Remove the worker from the list and start a new Worker to replace the
      // current one.
      this.workers.splice(this.workers.indexOf(worker), 1);
      this.addNewWorker();
    });
    this.workers.push(worker);
    this.freeWorkers.push(worker);
    this.emit(kWorkerFreedEvent);
  }

  runTask(task, callback) {
    if (this.freeWorkers.length === 0) {
      // No free threads, wait until a worker thread becomes free.
      this.tasks.push({ task, callback });
      return;
    }

    const worker = this.freeWorkers.pop();
    worker[kTaskInfo] = new WorkerPoolTaskInfo(callback);
    worker.postMessage(task);
  }

  close() {
    for (const worker of this.workers) worker.terminate();
  }
}const { AsyncResource } = require('async_hooks');
const { EventEmitter } = require('events');
const path = require('path');
const { Worker } = require('worker_threads');

const kTaskInfo = Symbol('kTaskInfo');
const kWorkerFreedEvent = Symbol('kWorkerFreedEvent');

class WorkerPoolTaskInfo extends AsyncResource {
  constructor(callback) {
    super('WorkerPoolTaskInfo');
    this.callback = callback;
  }

  done(err, result) {
    this.runInAsyncScope(this.callback, null, err, result);
    this.emitDestroy();  // `TaskInfo`s are used only once.
  }
}

class WorkerPool extends EventEmitter {
  constructor(numThreads) {
    super();
    this.numThreads = numThreads;
    this.workers = [];
    this.freeWorkers = [];
    this.tasks = [];

    for (let i = 0; i < numThreads; i++)
      this.addNewWorker();

    // Any time the kWorkerFreedEvent is emitted, dispatch
    // the next task pending in the queue, if any.
    this.on(kWorkerFreedEvent, () => {
      if (this.tasks.length > 0) {
        const { task, callback } = this.tasks.shift();
        this.runTask(task, callback);
      }
    });
  }

  addNewWorker() {
    const worker = new Worker(path.resolve(__dirname, 'task_processor.js'));
    worker.on('message', (result) => {
      // In case of success: Call the callback that was passed to `runTask`,
      // remove the `TaskInfo` associated with the Worker, and mark it as free
      // again.
      worker[kTaskInfo].done(null, result);
      worker[kTaskInfo] = null;
      this.freeWorkers.push(worker);
      this.emit(kWorkerFreedEvent);
    });
    worker.on('error', (err) => {
      // In case of an uncaught exception: Call the callback that was passed to
      // `runTask` with the error.
      if (worker[kTaskInfo])
        worker[kTaskInfo].done(err, null);
      else
        this.emit('error', err);
      // Remove the worker from the list and start a new Worker to replace the
      // current one.
      this.workers.splice(this.workers.indexOf(worker), 1);
      this.addNewWorker();
    });
    this.workers.push(worker);
    this.freeWorkers.push(worker);
    this.emit(kWorkerFreedEvent);
  }

  runTask(task, callback) {
    if (this.freeWorkers.length === 0) {
      // No free threads, wait until a worker thread becomes free.
      this.tasks.push({ task, callback });
      return;
    }

    const worker = this.freeWorkers.pop();
    worker[kTaskInfo] = new WorkerPoolTaskInfo(callback);
    worker.postMessage(task);
  }

  close() {
    for (const worker of this.workers) worker.terminate();
  }
}

module.exports = WorkerPool;

Without the explicit tracking added by the WorkerPoolTaskInfo objects, it would appear that the callbacks are associated with the individual Worker objects. However, the creation of the Workers is not associated with the creation of the tasks and does not provide information about when tasks were scheduled.

This pool could be used as follows:

import WorkerPool from './worker_pool.js';
import os from 'os';

const pool = new WorkerPool(os.cpus().length);

let finished = 0;
for (let i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
  pool.runTask({ a: 42, b: 100 }, (err, result) => {
    console.log(i, err, result);
    if (++finished === 10)
      pool.close();
  });
}const WorkerPool = require('./worker_pool.js');
const os = require('os');

const pool = new WorkerPool(os.cpus().length);

let finished = 0;
for (let i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
  pool.runTask({ a: 42, b: 100 }, (err, result) => {
    console.log(i, err, result);
    if (++finished === 10)
      pool.close();
  });
}

将 AsyncResource 与 EventEmitter 集成#

Event listeners triggered by an EventEmitter may be run in a different execution context than the one that was active when eventEmitter.on() was called.

The following example shows how to use the AsyncResource class to properly associate an event listener with the correct execution context. The same approach can be applied to a Stream or a similar event-driven class.

import { createServer } from 'http';
import { AsyncResource, executionAsyncId } from 'async_hooks';

const server = createServer((req, res) => {
  req.on('close', AsyncResource.bind(() => {
    // Execution context is bound to the current outer scope.
  }));
  req.on('close', () => {
    // Execution context is bound to the scope that caused 'close' to emit.
  });
  res.end();
}).listen(3000);const { createServer } = require('http');
const { AsyncResource, executionAsyncId } = require('async_hooks');

const server = createServer((req, res) => {
  req.on('close', AsyncResource.bind(() => {
    // Execution context is bound to the current outer scope.
  }));
  req.on('close', () => {
    // Execution context is bound to the scope that caused 'close' to emit.
  });
  res.end();
}).listen(3000);