Node.js v18.19.0 文档


DNS#

稳定性: 2 - 稳定的

Stability: 2 - Stable

源代码: lib/dns.js

node:dns 模块启用了名称解析。例如,使用它来查找主机名的 IP 地址。

The node:dns module enables name resolution. For example, use it to look up IP addresses of host names.

虽然以 域名系统 (DNS) 命名,但它并不总是使用 DNS 协议进行查找。dns.lookup() 使用操作系统工具来执行名称解析。它可能不需要执行任何网络通信。要像同一系统上的其他应用那样执行名称解析,则使用 dns.lookup()

Although named for the Domain Name System (DNS), it does not always use the DNS protocol for lookups. dns.lookup() uses the operating system facilities to perform name resolution. It may not need to perform any network communication. To perform name resolution the way other applications on the same system do, use dns.lookup().

const dns = require('node:dns');

dns.lookup('example.org', (err, address, family) => {
  console.log('address: %j family: IPv%s', address, family);
});
// address: "93.184.216.34" family: IPv4 

node:dns 模块中的所有其他函数都连接到实际的域名系统服务器以执行名称解析。它们将始终使用网络来执行域名系统查询。这些函数不使用 dns.lookup() 使用的同一组配置文件(例如 /etc/hosts)。使用这些函数始终执行域名系统查询,绕过其他名称解析工具。

All other functions in the node:dns module connect to an actual DNS server to perform name resolution. They will always use the network to perform DNS queries. These functions do not use the same set of configuration files used by dns.lookup() (e.g. /etc/hosts). Use these functions to always perform DNS queries, bypassing other name-resolution facilities.

const dns = require('node:dns');

dns.resolve4('archive.org', (err, addresses) => {
  if (err) throw err;

  console.log(`addresses: ${JSON.stringify(addresses)}`);

  addresses.forEach((a) => {
    dns.reverse(a, (err, hostnames) => {
      if (err) {
        throw err;
      }
      console.log(`reverse for ${a}: ${JSON.stringify(hostnames)}`);
    });
  });
}); 

有关详细信息,请参阅 实现的注意事项章节

See the Implementation considerations section for more information.

类:dns.Resolver#

Class: dns.Resolver

域名系统请求的独立解析器。

An independent resolver for DNS requests.

创建新的解析器使用默认的服务器设置。使用 resolver.setServers() 设置用于解析器的服务器不会影响其他解析器:

Creating a new resolver uses the default server settings. Setting the servers used for a resolver using resolver.setServers() does not affect other resolvers:

const { Resolver } = require('node:dns');
const resolver = new Resolver();
resolver.setServers(['4.4.4.4']);

// This request will use the server at 4.4.4.4, independent of global settings.
resolver.resolve4('example.org', (err, addresses) => {
  // ...
}); 

可以使用 node:dns 模块中的以下方法:

The following methods from the node:dns module are available:

Resolver([options])#

创建新的解析器。

Create a new resolver.

  • options <Object>

    • timeout <integer> 查询超时(以毫秒为单位),或 -1 使用默认超时。

      timeout <integer> Query timeout in milliseconds, or -1 to use the default timeout.

    • tries <integer> 解析器在放弃之前尝试联系每个名称服务器的尝试次数。默认值:4

      tries <integer> The number of tries the resolver will try contacting each name server before giving up. Default: 4

resolver.cancel()#

取消此解析器进行的所有未完成的域名系统查询。相应的回调将被调用,错误码为 ECANCELLED

Cancel all outstanding DNS queries made by this resolver. The corresponding callbacks will be called with an error with code ECANCELLED.

resolver.setLocalAddress([ipv4][, ipv6])#

  • ipv4 <string> IPv4 地址的字符串表示形式。默认值:'0.0.0.0'

    ipv4 <string> A string representation of an IPv4 address. Default: '0.0.0.0'

  • ipv6 <string> IPv6 地址的字符串表示形式。默认值:'::0'

    ipv6 <string> A string representation of an IPv6 address. Default: '::0'

解析器实例将从指定的 IP 地址发送其请求。这允许程序在多宿主系统上使用时指定出站接口。

The resolver instance will send its requests from the specified IP address. This allows programs to specify outbound interfaces when used on multi-homed systems.

如果没有指定 v4 或 v6 地址,则设置为默认值,操作系统会自动选择本地地址。

If a v4 or v6 address is not specified, it is set to the default and the operating system will choose a local address automatically.

解析器在向 IPv4 域名系统服务器触发请求时将使用 v4 本地地址,在向 IPv6 域名系统服务器触发请求时将使用 v6 本地地址。解析请求的 rrtype 对使用的本地地址没有影响。

The resolver will use the v4 local address when making requests to IPv4 DNS servers, and the v6 local address when making requests to IPv6 DNS servers. The rrtype of resolution requests has no impact on the local address used.

dns.getServers()#

返回 IP 地址字符串数组,格式根据 RFC 5952,当前配置为 DNS 解析。如果使用自定义端口,则字符串将包含端口部分。

Returns an array of IP address strings, formatted according to RFC 5952, that are currently configured for DNS resolution. A string will include a port section if a custom port is used.

[
  '4.4.4.4',
  '2001:4860:4860::8888',
  '4.4.4.4:1053',
  '[2001:4860:4860::8888]:1053',
] 

dns.lookup(hostname[, options], callback)#

  • hostname <string>

  • options <integer> | <Object>

    • family <integer> | <string> 记录族。必须是 460。出于向后兼容的原因,'IPv4''IPv6' 分别被解释为 46。值 0 表示同时返回 IPv4 和 IPv6 地址。默认值:0

      family <integer> | <string> The record family. Must be 4, 6, or 0. For backward compatibility reasons,'IPv4' and 'IPv6' are interpreted as 4 and 6 respectively. The value 0 indicates that IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are both returned. Default: 0.

    • hints <number> 一个或多个 支持的 getaddrinfo 标志。多个标志可以通过按位 OR 其值来传入。

      hints <number> One or more supported getaddrinfo flags. Multiple flags may be passed by bitwise ORing their values.

    • all <boolean> 当为 true 时,回调返回数组中所有已解析的地址。否则,返回单个地址。默认值:false

      all <boolean> When true, the callback returns all resolved addresses in an array. Otherwise, returns a single address. Default: false.

    • verbatim <boolean> 当为 true 时,回调按照 DNS 解析器返回的顺序接收 IPv4 和 IPv6 地址。当为 false 时,IPv4 地址位于 IPv6 地址之前。默认值:true(地址未重新排序)。默认值可使用 dns.setDefaultResultOrder()--dns-result-order 进行配置。

      verbatim <boolean> When true, the callback receives IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in the order the DNS resolver returned them. When false, IPv4 addresses are placed before IPv6 addresses. Default: true (addresses are not reordered). Default value is configurable using dns.setDefaultResultOrder() or --dns-result-order.

  • callback <Function>

    • err <Error>

    • address <string> IPv4 或 IPv6 地址的字符串表示形式。

      address <string> A string representation of an IPv4 or IPv6 address.

    • family <integer> 46,表示 address 族,如果地址不是 IPv4 或 IPv6 地址,则表示为 00 可能是操作系统使用的名称解析服务中存在错误的指示符。

      family <integer> 4 or 6, denoting the family of address, or 0 if the address is not an IPv4 or IPv6 address. 0 is a likely indicator of a bug in the name resolution service used by the operating system.

将主机名(例如 'nodejs.org')解析为第一个找到的 A (IPv4) 或 AAAA (IPv6) 记录。所有 option 属性都是可选的。如果 options 是整数,则它必须是 46 – 如果 options0 或未提供,则如果找到,则返回 IPv4 和 IPv6 地址。

Resolves a host name (e.g. 'nodejs.org') into the first found A (IPv4) or AAAA (IPv6) record. All option properties are optional. If options is an integer, then it must be 4 or 6 – if options is 0 or not provided, then IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are both returned if found.

all 选项设置为 truecallback 的参数更改为 (err, addresses)addresses 是具有属性 addressfamily 的对象数组。

With the all option set to true, the arguments for callback change to (err, addresses), with addresses being an array of objects with the properties address and family.

出错时,errError 对象,其中 err.code 是错误码。记住,err.code 将设置为 'ENOTFOUND',不仅当主机名不存在时,而且当查找以其他方式失败时,例如没有可用的文件描述符。

On error, err is an Error object, where err.code is the error code. Keep in mind that err.code will be set to 'ENOTFOUND' not only when the host name does not exist but also when the lookup fails in other ways such as no available file descriptors.

dns.lookup() 不一定与域名系统协议有任何关系。该实现使用一种操作系统工具,可以将名称与地址关联起来,反之亦然。这种实现会对任何 Node.js 程序的行为产生微妙但重要的影响。在使用 dns.lookup() 之前,请花一些时间查阅 实现的注意事项章节

dns.lookup() does not necessarily have anything to do with the DNS protocol. The implementation uses an operating system facility that can associate names with addresses and vice versa. This implementation can have subtle but important consequences on the behavior of any Node.js program. Please take some time to consult the Implementation considerations section before using dns.lookup().

用法示例:

Example usage:

const dns = require('node:dns');
const options = {
  family: 6,
  hints: dns.ADDRCONFIG | dns.V4MAPPED,
};
dns.lookup('example.com', options, (err, address, family) =>
  console.log('address: %j family: IPv%s', address, family));
// address: "2606:2800:220:1:248:1893:25c8:1946" family: IPv6

// When options.all is true, the result will be an Array.
options.all = true;
dns.lookup('example.com', options, (err, addresses) =>
  console.log('addresses: %j', addresses));
// addresses: [{"address":"2606:2800:220:1:248:1893:25c8:1946","family":6}] 

如果此方法作为其 util.promisify() 版本被调用,并且 all 未设置为 true,则它为具有 addressfamily 属性的 Object 返回 Promise

If this method is invoked as its util.promisify()ed version, and all is not set to true, it returns a Promise for an Object with address and family properties.

支持的 getaddrinfo 标志#

Supported getaddrinfo flags

以下标志可以作为提示传给 dns.lookup()

The following flags can be passed as hints to dns.lookup().

  • dns.ADDRCONFIG:将返回的地址类型限制为系统上配置的非环回地址类型。例如,仅当当前系统至少配置了一个 IPv4 地址时,才会返回 IPv4 地址。

    dns.ADDRCONFIG: Limits returned address types to the types of non-loopback addresses configured on the system. For example, IPv4 addresses are only returned if the current system has at least one IPv4 address configured.

  • dns.V4MAPPED:如果指定了 IPv6 族,但未找到 IPv6 地址,则返回 IPv4 映射的 IPv6 地址。某些操作系统(例如 FreeBSD 10.1)不支持它。

    dns.V4MAPPED: If the IPv6 family was specified, but no IPv6 addresses were found, then return IPv4 mapped IPv6 addresses. It is not supported on some operating systems (e.g. FreeBSD 10.1).

  • dns.ALL:如果指定了 dns.V4MAPPED,则返回解析的 IPv6 地址以及 IPv4 映射的 IPv6 地址。

    dns.ALL: If dns.V4MAPPED is specified, return resolved IPv6 addresses as well as IPv4 mapped IPv6 addresses.

dns.lookupService(address, port, callback)#

使用操作系统的底层 getnameinfo 实现将给定的 addressport 解析为主机名和服务。

Resolves the given address and port into a host name and service using the operating system's underlying getnameinfo implementation.

如果 address 不是有效的 IP 地址,则会抛出 TypeErrorport 将被强制为数字。如果不是合法的端口,则会抛出 TypeError

If address is not a valid IP address, a TypeError will be thrown. The port will be coerced to a number. If it is not a legal port, a TypeError will be thrown.

出错时,errError 对象,其中 err.code 是错误码。

On an error, err is an Error object, where err.code is the error code.

const dns = require('node:dns');
dns.lookupService('127.0.0.1', 22, (err, hostname, service) => {
  console.log(hostname, service);
  // Prints: localhost ssh
}); 

如果此方法作为其 util.promisify() 版本被调用,则其将为具有 hostnameservice 属性的 Object 返回 Promise

If this method is invoked as its util.promisify()ed version, it returns a Promise for an Object with hostname and service properties.

dns.resolve(hostname[, rrtype], callback)#

使用域名系统协议将主机名(例如 'nodejs.org')解析为资源记录数组。callback 函数有参数 (err, records)。当成功时,records 将是资源记录数组。个别结果的类型和结构因 rrtype 而异:

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve a host name (e.g. 'nodejs.org') into an array of the resource records. The callback function has arguments (err, records). When successful, records will be an array of resource records. The type and structure of individual results varies based on rrtype:

rrtyperecords 包含结果类型速记法
'A'IPv4 地址(默认)<string>dns.resolve4()
'AAAA'IPv6 地址<string>dns.resolve6()
'ANY'任何记录<Object>dns.resolveAny()
'CAA'CA 授权记录<Object>dns.resolveCaa()
'CNAME'规范名称记录<string>dns.resolveCname()
'MX'邮件交换记录<Object>dns.resolveMx()
'NAPTR'名称权限指针记录<Object>dns.resolveNaptr()
'NS'名称服务器记录<string>dns.resolveNs()
'PTR'指针记录<string>dns.resolvePtr()
'SOA'权限记录的开始<Object>dns.resolveSoa()
'SRV'服务记录<Object>dns.resolveSrv()
'TXT'文本记录<string[]>dns.resolveTxt()

出错时,err 是一个 Error 对象,其中 err.codeDNS 错误代码 之一。

On error, err is an Error object, where err.code is one of the DNS error codes.

dns.resolve4(hostname[, options], callback)#

  • hostname <string> 要解析的主机名。

    hostname <string> Host name to resolve.

  • options <Object>

    • ttl <boolean> 检索每条记录的生存时间值 (TTL)。当为 true 时,回调接收 { address: '1.2.3.4', ttl: 60 } 对象数组而不是字符串数组,TTL 以秒表示。

      ttl <boolean> Retrieves the Time-To-Live value (TTL) of each record. When true, the callback receives an array of { address: '1.2.3.4', ttl: 60 } objects rather than an array of strings, with the TTL expressed in seconds.

  • callback <Function>

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析 IPv4 地址(A 记录)。传给 callback 函数的 addresses 参数将包含 IPv4 地址的数组(例如 ['74.125.79.104', '74.125.79.105', '74.125.79.106'])。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve a IPv4 addresses (A records) for the hostname. The addresses argument passed to the callback function will contain an array of IPv4 addresses (e.g. ['74.125.79.104', '74.125.79.105', '74.125.79.106']).

dns.resolve6(hostname[, options], callback)#

  • hostname <string> 要解析的主机名。

    hostname <string> Host name to resolve.

  • options <Object>

    • ttl <boolean> 检索每条记录的生存时间值 (TTL)。当为 true 时,回调接收 { address: '0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7', ttl: 60 } 对象数组而不是字符串数组,TTL 以秒表示。

      ttl <boolean> Retrieve the Time-To-Live value (TTL) of each record. When true, the callback receives an array of { address: '0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7', ttl: 60 } objects rather than an array of strings, with the TTL expressed in seconds.

  • callback <Function>

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析 IPv6 地址(AAAA 记录)。传给 callback 函数的 addresses 参数将包含 IPv6 地址数组。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve IPv6 addresses (AAAA records) for the hostname. The addresses argument passed to the callback function will contain an array of IPv6 addresses.

dns.resolveAny(hostname, callback)#

使用域名系统协议解析所有记录(也称为 ANY* 查询)。传给 callback 函数的 ret 参数将是包含各种类型记录的数组。每个对象都有表示当前记录的类型的属性 type。并且根据 type,对象上将出现其他属性:

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve all records (also known as ANY or * query). The ret argument passed to the callback function will be an array containing various types of records. Each object has a property type that indicates the type of the current record. And depending on the type, additional properties will be present on the object:

类型属性
'A'address/ttl
'AAAA'address/ttl
'CNAME'value
'MX'参考 dns.resolveMx()
'NAPTR'参考 dns.resolveNaptr()
'NS'value
'PTR'value
'SOA'参考 dns.resolveSoa()
'SRV'参考 dns.resolveSrv()
'TXT'这种类型的记录包含一个名为 entries 的数组属性,它引用 dns.resolveTxt(),例如 { entries: ['...'], type: 'TXT' }

这是传给回调的 ret 对象的示例:

Here is an example of the ret object passed to the callback:

[ { type: 'A', address: '127.0.0.1', ttl: 299 },
  { type: 'CNAME', value: 'example.com' },
  { type: 'MX', exchange: 'alt4.aspmx.l.example.com', priority: 50 },
  { type: 'NS', value: 'ns1.example.com' },
  { type: 'TXT', entries: [ 'v=spf1 include:_spf.example.com ~all' ] },
  { type: 'SOA',
    nsname: 'ns1.example.com',
    hostmaster: 'admin.example.com',
    serial: 156696742,
    refresh: 900,
    retry: 900,
    expire: 1800,
    minttl: 60 } ] 

域名系统服务器服务商可以选择不响应 ANY 查询。调用单个方法(如 dns.resolve4()dns.resolveMx() 等)可能会更好。更多详细信息,请参见 RFC 8482

DNS server operators may choose not to respond to ANY queries. It may be better to call individual methods like dns.resolve4(), dns.resolveMx(), and so on. For more details, see RFC 8482.

dns.resolveCname(hostname, callback)#

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析 CNAME 记录。传给 callback 函数的 addresses 参数将包含可用于 hostname(例如 ['bar.example.com'])的规范名称记录的数组。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve CNAME records for the hostname. The addresses argument passed to the callback function will contain an array of canonical name records available for the hostname (e.g. ['bar.example.com']).

dns.resolveCaa(hostname, callback)#

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析 CAA 记录。传给 callback 函数的 addresses 参数将包含可用于 hostname(例如 [{critical: 0, iodef: 'mailto:pki@example.com'}, {critical: 128, issue: 'pki.example.com'}])的证书颁发机构授权记录的数组。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve CAA records for the hostname. The addresses argument passed to the callback function will contain an array of certification authority authorization records available for the hostname (e.g. [{critical: 0, iodef: 'mailto:pki@example.com'}, {critical: 128, issue: 'pki.example.com'}]).

dns.resolveMx(hostname, callback)#

使用域名系统协议解析 hostname 的邮件交换记录(MX 记录)。传给 callback 函数的 addresses 参数将包含其中包含 priorityexchange 属性(例如 [{priority: 10, exchange: 'mx.example.com'}, ...])的对象数组。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve mail exchange records (MX records) for the hostname. The addresses argument passed to the callback function will contain an array of objects containing both a priority and exchange property (e.g. [{priority: 10, exchange: 'mx.example.com'}, ...]).

dns.resolveNaptr(hostname, callback)#

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析基于正则表达式的记录(NAPTR 记录)。传给 callback 函数的 addresses 参数将包含具有以下属性的对象数组:

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve regular expression-based records (NAPTR records) for the hostname. The addresses argument passed to the callback function will contain an array of objects with the following properties:

  • flags

  • service

  • regexp

  • replacement

  • order

  • preference

{
  flags: 's',
  service: 'SIP+D2U',
  regexp: '',
  replacement: '_sip._udp.example.com',
  order: 30,
  preference: 100
} 

dns.resolveNs(hostname, callback)#

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析名称服务器记录(NS 记录)。传给 callback 函数的 addresses 参数将包含可用于 hostname(例如 ['ns1.example.com', 'ns2.example.com'])的名称服务器记录数组。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve name server records (NS records) for the hostname. The addresses argument passed to the callback function will contain an array of name server records available for hostname (e.g. ['ns1.example.com', 'ns2.example.com']).

dns.resolvePtr(hostname, callback)#

使用域名系统协议解析 hostname 的指针记录(PTR 记录)。传给 callback 函数的 addresses 参数将是包含响应记录的字符串数组。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve pointer records (PTR records) for the hostname. The addresses argument passed to the callback function will be an array of strings containing the reply records.

dns.resolveSoa(hostname, callback)#

使用域名系统协议来解析 hostname 的起始规范记录(SOA 记录)。传给 callback 函数的 address 参数将是具有以下属性的对象:

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve a start of authority record (SOA record) for the hostname. The address argument passed to the callback function will be an object with the following properties:

  • nsname

  • hostmaster

  • serial

  • refresh

  • retry

  • expire

  • minttl

{
  nsname: 'ns.example.com',
  hostmaster: 'root.example.com',
  serial: 2013101809,
  refresh: 10000,
  retry: 2400,
  expire: 604800,
  minttl: 3600
} 

dns.resolveSrv(hostname, callback)#

使用域名系统协议解析 hostname 的服务记录(SRV 记录)。传给 callback 函数的 addresses 参数将是具有以下属性的对象数组:

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve service records (SRV records) for the hostname. The addresses argument passed to the callback function will be an array of objects with the following properties:

  • priority

  • weight

  • port

  • name

{
  priority: 10,
  weight: 5,
  port: 21223,
  name: 'service.example.com'
} 

dns.resolveTxt(hostname, callback)#

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析文本查询(TXT 记录)。传给 callback 函数的 records 参数是可用于 hostname(例如 [ ['v=spf1 ip4:0.0.0.0 ', '~all' ] ])的文本记录的二维数组。每个子数组包含一条记录的 TXT 块。根据用例,这些可以连接在一起或单独处理。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve text queries (TXT records) for the hostname. The records argument passed to the callback function is a two-dimensional array of the text records available for hostname (e.g. [ ['v=spf1 ip4:0.0.0.0 ', '~all' ] ]). Each sub-array contains TXT chunks of one record. Depending on the use case, these could be either joined together or treated separately.

dns.reverse(ip, callback)#

执行反向域名系统查询,将 IPv4 或 IPv6 地址解析为主机名数组。

Performs a reverse DNS query that resolves an IPv4 or IPv6 address to an array of host names.

出错时,err 是一个 Error 对象,其中 err.codeDNS 错误代码 之一。

On error, err is an Error object, where err.code is one of the DNS error codes.

dns.setDefaultResultOrder(order)#

  • order <string> 必须是 'ipv4first''verbatim'

    order <string> must be 'ipv4first' or 'verbatim'.

dns.lookup()dnsPromises.lookup() 中设置 verbatim 的默认值。该值可能是:

Set the default value of verbatim in dns.lookup() and dnsPromises.lookup(). The value could be:

  • ipv4first:设置默认的 verbatimfalse

    ipv4first: sets default verbatim false.

  • verbatim:设置默认的 verbatimtrue

    verbatim: sets default verbatim true.

默认为 verbatim,并且 dns.setDefaultResultOrder() 的优先级高于 --dns-result-order。当使用 工作线程 时,主线程中的 dns.setDefaultResultOrder() 不会影响 worker 中的默认 dns 命令。

The default is verbatim and dns.setDefaultResultOrder() have higher priority than --dns-result-order. When using worker threads, dns.setDefaultResultOrder() from the main thread won't affect the default dns orders in workers.

dns.getDefaultResultOrder()#

dns.lookup()dnsPromises.lookup() 中获取 verbatim 的默认值。该值可能是:

Get the default value for verbatim in dns.lookup() and dnsPromises.lookup(). The value could be:

  • ipv4first:对于 verbatim 默认为 false

    ipv4first: for verbatim defaulting to false.

  • verbatim:对于 verbatim 默认为 true

    verbatim: for verbatim defaulting to true.

dns.setServers(servers)#

设置执行 DNS 解析时要使用的服务器的 IP 地址和端口。servers 参数是 RFC 5952 格式地址的数组。如果端口是 IANA 默认 DNS 端口 (53),则可以省略。

Sets the IP address and port of servers to be used when performing DNS resolution. The servers argument is an array of RFC 5952 formatted addresses. If the port is the IANA default DNS port (53) it can be omitted.

dns.setServers([
  '4.4.4.4',
  '[2001:4860:4860::8888]',
  '4.4.4.4:1053',
  '[2001:4860:4860::8888]:1053',
]); 

如果提供的地址无效,则会抛出错误。

An error will be thrown if an invalid address is provided.

在进行域名系统查询时不得调用 dns.setServers() 方法。

The dns.setServers() method must not be called while a DNS query is in progress.

dns.setServers() 方法仅影响 dns.resolve()dns.resolve*()dns.reverse()(特别是不影响 dns.lookup())。

The dns.setServers() method affects only dns.resolve(), dns.resolve*() and dns.reverse() (and specifically not dns.lookup()).

此方法的工作原理与 resolve.conf 非常相似。也就是说,如果尝试使用提供的第一个服务器进行解析导致 NOTFOUND 错误,则 resolve() 方法将不会尝试使用提供的后续服务器进行解析。仅当较早的域名系统服务器超时或导致其他错误时,才会使用后备域名系统服务器。

This method works much like resolve.conf. That is, if attempting to resolve with the first server provided results in a NOTFOUND error, the resolve() method will not attempt to resolve with subsequent servers provided. Fallback DNS servers will only be used if the earlier ones time out or result in some other error.

DNS promise API#

dns.promises API 提供了一组替代的异步 DNS 方法,这些方法返回 Promise 对象而不是使用回调。API 可通过 require('node:dns').promisesrequire('node:dns/promises') 访问。

The dns.promises API provides an alternative set of asynchronous DNS methods that return Promise objects rather than using callbacks. The API is accessible via require('node:dns').promises or require('node:dns/promises').

类:dnsPromises.Resolver#

Class: dnsPromises.Resolver

域名系统请求的独立解析器。

An independent resolver for DNS requests.

创建新的解析器使用默认的服务器设置。使用 resolver.setServers() 设置用于解析器的服务器不会影响其他解析器:

Creating a new resolver uses the default server settings. Setting the servers used for a resolver using resolver.setServers() does not affect other resolvers:

const { Resolver } = require('node:dns').promises;
const resolver = new Resolver();
resolver.setServers(['4.4.4.4']);

// This request will use the server at 4.4.4.4, independent of global settings.
resolver.resolve4('example.org').then((addresses) => {
  // ...
});

// Alternatively, the same code can be written using async-await style.
(async function() {
  const addresses = await resolver.resolve4('example.org');
})(); 

来自 dnsPromises API 的以下方法可用:

The following methods from the dnsPromises API are available:

resolver.cancel()#

取消此解析器进行的所有未完成的域名系统查询。相应的 promise 将使用错误码 ECANCELLED 拒绝。

Cancel all outstanding DNS queries made by this resolver. The corresponding promises will be rejected with an error with the code ECANCELLED.

dnsPromises.getServers()#

返回 IP 地址字符串数组,格式根据 RFC 5952,当前配置为 DNS 解析。如果使用自定义端口,则字符串将包含端口部分。

Returns an array of IP address strings, formatted according to RFC 5952, that are currently configured for DNS resolution. A string will include a port section if a custom port is used.

[
  '4.4.4.4',
  '2001:4860:4860::8888',
  '4.4.4.4:1053',
  '[2001:4860:4860::8888]:1053',
] 

dnsPromises.lookup(hostname[, options])#

  • hostname <string>

  • options <integer> | <Object>

    • family <integer> 记录族。必须是 460。值 0 表示同时返回 IPv4 和 IPv6 地址。默认值:0

      family <integer> The record family. Must be 4, 6, or 0. The value 0 indicates that IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are both returned. Default: 0.

    • hints <number> 一个或多个 支持的 getaddrinfo 标志。多个标志可以通过按位 OR 其值来传入。

      hints <number> One or more supported getaddrinfo flags. Multiple flags may be passed by bitwise ORing their values.

    • all <boolean> 当为 true 时,Promise 使用数组中的所有地址进行解决。否则,返回单个地址。默认值:false

      all <boolean> When true, the Promise is resolved with all addresses in an array. Otherwise, returns a single address. Default: false.

    • verbatim <boolean> 当为 true 时,Promise 使用按照 DNS 解析器返回的顺序使用 IPv4 和 IPv6 地址进行解决。当为 false 时,IPv4 地址位于 IPv6 地址之前。默认值:目前是 false(地址已重新排序),但预计在不久的将来会发生变化。默认值可使用 dns.setDefaultResultOrder()--dns-result-order 进行配置。新代码应使用 { verbatim: true }

      verbatim <boolean> When true, the Promise is resolved with IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in the order the DNS resolver returned them. When false, IPv4 addresses are placed before IPv6 addresses. Default: currently false (addresses are reordered) but this is expected to change in the not too distant future. Default value is configurable using dns.setDefaultResultOrder() or --dns-result-order. New code should use { verbatim: true }.

将主机名(例如 'nodejs.org')解析为第一个找到的 A (IPv4) 或 AAAA (IPv6) 记录。所有 option 属性都是可选的。如果 options 是整数,则它必须是 46 – 如果未提供 options,则如果找到,则同时返回 IPv4 和 IPv6 地址。

Resolves a host name (e.g. 'nodejs.org') into the first found A (IPv4) or AAAA (IPv6) record. All option properties are optional. If options is an integer, then it must be 4 or 6 – if options is not provided, then IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are both returned if found.

all 选项设置为 true,则 Promise 使用 addresses 是具有属性 addressfamily 的对象数组进行解决。

With the all option set to true, the Promise is resolved with addresses being an array of objects with the properties address and family.

当出错时,Promise 使用 Error 对象拒绝,其中 err.code 是错误码。记住,err.code 将设置为 'ENOTFOUND',不仅当主机名不存在时,而且当查找以其他方式失败时,例如没有可用的文件描述符。

On error, the Promise is rejected with an Error object, where err.code is the error code. Keep in mind that err.code will be set to 'ENOTFOUND' not only when the host name does not exist but also when the lookup fails in other ways such as no available file descriptors.

dnsPromises.lookup() 不一定与域名系统协议有任何关系。该实现使用一种操作系统工具,可以将名称与地址关联起来,反之亦然。这种实现会对任何 Node.js 程序的行为产生微妙但重要的影响。在使用 dnsPromises.lookup() 之前,请花一些时间查阅 实现的注意事项章节

dnsPromises.lookup() does not necessarily have anything to do with the DNS protocol. The implementation uses an operating system facility that can associate names with addresses and vice versa. This implementation can have subtle but important consequences on the behavior of any Node.js program. Please take some time to consult the Implementation considerations section before using dnsPromises.lookup().

用法示例:

Example usage:

const dns = require('node:dns');
const dnsPromises = dns.promises;
const options = {
  family: 6,
  hints: dns.ADDRCONFIG | dns.V4MAPPED,
};

dnsPromises.lookup('example.com', options).then((result) => {
  console.log('address: %j family: IPv%s', result.address, result.family);
  // address: "2606:2800:220:1:248:1893:25c8:1946" family: IPv6
});

// When options.all is true, the result will be an Array.
options.all = true;
dnsPromises.lookup('example.com', options).then((result) => {
  console.log('addresses: %j', result);
  // addresses: [{"address":"2606:2800:220:1:248:1893:25c8:1946","family":6}]
}); 

dnsPromises.lookupService(address, port)#

使用操作系统的底层 getnameinfo 实现将给定的 addressport 解析为主机名和服务。

Resolves the given address and port into a host name and service using the operating system's underlying getnameinfo implementation.

如果 address 不是有效的 IP 地址,则会抛出 TypeErrorport 将被强制为数字。如果不是合法的端口,则会抛出 TypeError

If address is not a valid IP address, a TypeError will be thrown. The port will be coerced to a number. If it is not a legal port, a TypeError will be thrown.

当出错时,Promise 使用 Error 对象拒绝,其中 err.code 是错误码。

On error, the Promise is rejected with an Error object, where err.code is the error code.

const dnsPromises = require('node:dns').promises;
dnsPromises.lookupService('127.0.0.1', 22).then((result) => {
  console.log(result.hostname, result.service);
  // Prints: localhost ssh
}); 

dnsPromises.resolve(hostname[, rrtype])#

  • hostname <string> 要解析的主机名。

    hostname <string> Host name to resolve.

  • rrtype <string> 资源记录类型。默认值:'A'

    rrtype <string> Resource record type. Default: 'A'.

使用域名系统协议将主机名(例如 'nodejs.org')解析为资源记录数组。当成功时,Promise 使用资源记录数组解决。个别结果的类型和结构因 rrtype 而异:

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve a host name (e.g. 'nodejs.org') into an array of the resource records. When successful, the Promise is resolved with an array of resource records. The type and structure of individual results vary based on rrtype:

rrtyperecords 包含结果类型速记法
'A'IPv4 地址(默认)<string>dnsPromises.resolve4()
'AAAA'IPv6 地址<string>dnsPromises.resolve6()
'ANY'任何记录<Object>dnsPromises.resolveAny()
'CAA'CA 授权记录<Object>dnsPromises.resolveCaa()
'CNAME'规范名称记录<string>dnsPromises.resolveCname()
'MX'邮件交换记录<Object>dnsPromises.resolveMx()
'NAPTR'名称权限指针记录<Object>dnsPromises.resolveNaptr()
'NS'名称服务器记录<string>dnsPromises.resolveNs()
'PTR'指针记录<string>dnsPromises.resolvePtr()
'SOA'权限记录的开始<Object>dnsPromises.resolveSoa()
'SRV'服务记录<Object>dnsPromises.resolveSrv()
'TXT'文本记录<string[]>dnsPromises.resolveTxt()

出错时,PromiseError 对象拒绝,其中 err.codeDNS 错误代码 之一。

On error, the Promise is rejected with an Error object, where err.code is one of the DNS error codes.

dnsPromises.resolve4(hostname[, options])#

  • hostname <string> 要解析的主机名。

    hostname <string> Host name to resolve.

  • options <Object>

    • ttl <boolean> 检索每条记录的生存时间值 (TTL)。当为 true 时,Promise 使用 { address: '1.2.3.4', ttl: 60 } 对象数组而不是字符串数组进行解决,TTL 以秒表示。

      ttl <boolean> Retrieve the Time-To-Live value (TTL) of each record. When true, the Promise is resolved with an array of { address: '1.2.3.4', ttl: 60 } objects rather than an array of strings, with the TTL expressed in seconds.

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析 IPv4 地址(A 记录)。当成功时,Promise 使用 IPv4 地址数值(例如 ['74.125.79.104', '74.125.79.105', '74.125.79.106'])解决。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve IPv4 addresses (A records) for the hostname. On success, the Promise is resolved with an array of IPv4 addresses (e.g. ['74.125.79.104', '74.125.79.105', '74.125.79.106']).

dnsPromises.resolve6(hostname[, options])#

  • hostname <string> 要解析的主机名。

    hostname <string> Host name to resolve.

  • options <Object>

    • ttl <boolean> 检索每条记录的生存时间值 (TTL)。当为 true 时,Promise 使用 { address: '0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7', ttl: 60 } 对象数组而不是字符串数组进行解决,TTL 以秒表示。

      ttl <boolean> Retrieve the Time-To-Live value (TTL) of each record. When true, the Promise is resolved with an array of { address: '0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7', ttl: 60 } objects rather than an array of strings, with the TTL expressed in seconds.

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析 IPv6 地址(AAAA 记录)。当成功时,Promise 使用 IPv6 地址数组解决。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve IPv6 addresses (AAAA records) for the hostname. On success, the Promise is resolved with an array of IPv6 addresses.

dnsPromises.resolveAny(hostname)#

使用域名系统协议解析所有记录(也称为 ANY* 查询)。当成功时,Promise 使用包含各种类型记录的数组进行解决。每个对象都有表示当前记录的类型的属性 type。并且根据 type,对象上将出现其他属性:

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve all records (also known as ANY or * query). On success, the Promise is resolved with an array containing various types of records. Each object has a property type that indicates the type of the current record. And depending on the type, additional properties will be present on the object:

类型属性
'A'address/ttl
'AAAA'address/ttl
'CNAME'value
'MX'参考 dnsPromises.resolveMx()
'NAPTR'参考 dnsPromises.resolveNaptr()
'NS'value
'PTR'value
'SOA'参考 dnsPromises.resolveSoa()
'SRV'参考 dnsPromises.resolveSrv()
'TXT'这种类型的记录包含一个名为 entries 的数组属性,它引用 dnsPromises.resolveTxt(),例如 { entries: ['...'], type: 'TXT' }

以下是结果对象的示例:

Here is an example of the result object:

[ { type: 'A', address: '127.0.0.1', ttl: 299 },
  { type: 'CNAME', value: 'example.com' },
  { type: 'MX', exchange: 'alt4.aspmx.l.example.com', priority: 50 },
  { type: 'NS', value: 'ns1.example.com' },
  { type: 'TXT', entries: [ 'v=spf1 include:_spf.example.com ~all' ] },
  { type: 'SOA',
    nsname: 'ns1.example.com',
    hostmaster: 'admin.example.com',
    serial: 156696742,
    refresh: 900,
    retry: 900,
    expire: 1800,
    minttl: 60 } ] 

dnsPromises.resolveCaa(hostname)#

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析 CAA 记录。当成功时,Promise 使用包含可用于 hostname(例如 [{critical: 0, iodef: 'mailto:pki@example.com'},{critical: 128, issue: 'pki.example.com'}])的可用证书颁发机构授权记录的对象数组进行解决。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve CAA records for the hostname. On success, the Promise is resolved with an array of objects containing available certification authority authorization records available for the hostname (e.g. [{critical: 0, iodef: 'mailto:pki@example.com'},{critical: 128, issue: 'pki.example.com'}]).

dnsPromises.resolveCname(hostname)#

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析 CNAME 记录。当成功时,Promise 使用 hostname 可用的规范名称记录数组(例如 ['bar.example.com'])进行解决。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve CNAME records for the hostname. On success, the Promise is resolved with an array of canonical name records available for the hostname (e.g. ['bar.example.com']).

dnsPromises.resolveMx(hostname)#

使用域名系统协议解析 hostname 的邮件交换记录(MX 记录)。当成功时,Promise 使用包含 priorityexchange 属性(例如 [{priority: 10, exchange: 'mx.example.com'}, ...])的对象数组进行解决。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve mail exchange records (MX records) for the hostname. On success, the Promise is resolved with an array of objects containing both a priority and exchange property (e.g. [{priority: 10, exchange: 'mx.example.com'}, ...]).

dnsPromises.resolveNaptr(hostname)#

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析基于正则表达式的记录(NAPTR 记录)。当成功时,Promise 使用具有以下属性的对象数组进行解决:

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve regular expression-based records (NAPTR records) for the hostname. On success, the Promise is resolved with an array of objects with the following properties:

  • flags

  • service

  • regexp

  • replacement

  • order

  • preference

{
  flags: 's',
  service: 'SIP+D2U',
  regexp: '',
  replacement: '_sip._udp.example.com',
  order: 30,
  preference: 100
} 

dnsPromises.resolveNs(hostname)#

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析名称服务器记录(NS 记录)。当成功时,Promise 使用可用于 hostname 的名称服务器记录数组(例如 ['ns1.example.com', 'ns2.example.com'])进行解决。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve name server records (NS records) for the hostname. On success, the Promise is resolved with an array of name server records available for hostname (e.g. ['ns1.example.com', 'ns2.example.com']).

dnsPromises.resolvePtr(hostname)#

使用域名系统协议解析 hostname 的指针记录(PTR 记录)。当成功时,Promise 使用包含响应记录的字符串数组进行解决。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve pointer records (PTR records) for the hostname. On success, the Promise is resolved with an array of strings containing the reply records.

dnsPromises.resolveSoa(hostname)#

使用域名系统协议来解析 hostname 的起始规范记录(SOA 记录)。当成功时,Promise 使用具有以下属性的对象进行解决:

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve a start of authority record (SOA record) for the hostname. On success, the Promise is resolved with an object with the following properties:

  • nsname

  • hostmaster

  • serial

  • refresh

  • retry

  • expire

  • minttl

{
  nsname: 'ns.example.com',
  hostmaster: 'root.example.com',
  serial: 2013101809,
  refresh: 10000,
  retry: 2400,
  expire: 604800,
  minttl: 3600
} 

dnsPromises.resolveSrv(hostname)#

使用域名系统协议解析 hostname 的服务记录(SRV 记录)。当成功时,Promise 使用具有以下属性的对象数组进行解决:

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve service records (SRV records) for the hostname. On success, the Promise is resolved with an array of objects with the following properties:

  • priority

  • weight

  • port

  • name

{
  priority: 10,
  weight: 5,
  port: 21223,
  name: 'service.example.com'
} 

dnsPromises.resolveTxt(hostname)#

使用域名系统协议为 hostname 解析文本查询(TXT 记录)。当成功时,Promise 使用可用于 hostname(例如 [ ['v=spf1 ip4:0.0.0.0 ', '~all' ] ])的文本记录的二维数组进行解决。每个子数组包含一条记录的 TXT 块。根据用例,这些可以连接在一起或单独处理。

Uses the DNS protocol to resolve text queries (TXT records) for the hostname. On success, the Promise is resolved with a two-dimensional array of the text records available for hostname (e.g. [ ['v=spf1 ip4:0.0.0.0 ', '~all' ] ]). Each sub-array contains TXT chunks of one record. Depending on the use case, these could be either joined together or treated separately.

dnsPromises.reverse(ip)#

执行反向域名系统查询,将 IPv4 或 IPv6 地址解析为主机名数组。

Performs a reverse DNS query that resolves an IPv4 or IPv6 address to an array of host names.

出错时,PromiseError 对象拒绝,其中 err.codeDNS 错误代码 之一。

On error, the Promise is rejected with an Error object, where err.code is one of the DNS error codes.

dnsPromises.setDefaultResultOrder(order)#

  • order <string> 必须是 'ipv4first''verbatim'

    order <string> must be 'ipv4first' or 'verbatim'.

dns.lookup()dnsPromises.lookup() 中设置 verbatim 的默认值。该值可能是:

Set the default value of verbatim in dns.lookup() and dnsPromises.lookup(). The value could be:

  • ipv4first:设置默认的 verbatimfalse

    ipv4first: sets default verbatim false.

  • verbatim:设置默认的 verbatimtrue

    verbatim: sets default verbatim true.

默认为 verbatim,并且 dnsPromises.setDefaultResultOrder() 的优先级高于 --dns-result-order。当使用 工作线程 时,主线程中的 dnsPromises.setDefaultResultOrder() 不会影响 worker 中的默认 dns 命令。

The default is verbatim and dnsPromises.setDefaultResultOrder() have higher priority than --dns-result-order. When using worker threads, dnsPromises.setDefaultResultOrder() from the main thread won't affect the default dns orders in workers.

dnsPromises.getDefaultResultOrder()#

获取 dnsOrder 的值。

Get the value of dnsOrder.

dnsPromises.setServers(servers)#

设置执行 DNS 解析时要使用的服务器的 IP 地址和端口。servers 参数是 RFC 5952 格式地址的数组。如果端口是 IANA 默认 DNS 端口 (53),则可以省略。

Sets the IP address and port of servers to be used when performing DNS resolution. The servers argument is an array of RFC 5952 formatted addresses. If the port is the IANA default DNS port (53) it can be omitted.

dnsPromises.setServers([
  '4.4.4.4',
  '[2001:4860:4860::8888]',
  '4.4.4.4:1053',
  '[2001:4860:4860::8888]:1053',
]); 

如果提供的地址无效,则会抛出错误。

An error will be thrown if an invalid address is provided.

在进行域名系统查询时不得调用 dnsPromises.setServers() 方法。

The dnsPromises.setServers() method must not be called while a DNS query is in progress.

此方法的工作原理与 resolve.conf 非常相似。也就是说,如果尝试使用提供的第一个服务器进行解析导致 NOTFOUND 错误,则 resolve() 方法将不会尝试使用提供的后续服务器进行解析。仅当较早的域名系统服务器超时或导致其他错误时,才会使用后备域名系统服务器。

This method works much like resolve.conf. That is, if attempting to resolve with the first server provided results in a NOTFOUND error, the resolve() method will not attempt to resolve with subsequent servers provided. Fallback DNS servers will only be used if the earlier ones time out or result in some other error.

错误代码#

Error codes

每个域名系统查询都可以返回以下错误代码之一:

Each DNS query can return one of the following error codes:

  • dns.NODATA:域名系统服务器返回没有数据的答案。

    dns.NODATA: DNS server returned an answer with no data.

  • dns.FORMERR:域名系统服务器声称查询格式错误。

    dns.FORMERR: DNS server claims query was misformatted.

  • dns.SERVFAIL:域名系统服务器返回一般故障。

    dns.SERVFAIL: DNS server returned general failure.

  • dns.NOTFOUND:未找到域名。

    dns.NOTFOUND: Domain name not found.

  • dns.NOTIMP:域名系统服务器没有执行请求的操作。

    dns.NOTIMP: DNS server does not implement the requested operation.

  • dns.REFUSED:域名系统服务器拒绝查询。

    dns.REFUSED: DNS server refused query.

  • dns.BADQUERY:域名系统查询格式错误。

    dns.BADQUERY: Misformatted DNS query.

  • dns.BADNAME:主机名格式错误。

    dns.BADNAME: Misformatted host name.

  • dns.BADFAMILY:不支持的地址族。

    dns.BADFAMILY: Unsupported address family.

  • dns.BADRESP:DNS 响应格式错误。

    dns.BADRESP: Misformatted DNS reply.

  • dns.CONNREFUSED:无法联系域名系统服务器。

    dns.CONNREFUSED: Could not contact DNS servers.

  • dns.TIMEOUT:联系域名系统服务器时超时。

    dns.TIMEOUT: Timeout while contacting DNS servers.

  • dns.EOF:文件结束。

    dns.EOF: End of file.

  • dns.FILE:读取文件时出错。

    dns.FILE: Error reading file.

  • dns.NOMEM:内存不足。

    dns.NOMEM: Out of memory.

  • dns.DESTRUCTION:渠道正在被销毁。

    dns.DESTRUCTION: Channel is being destroyed.

  • dns.BADSTR:格式错误的字符串。

    dns.BADSTR: Misformatted string.

  • dns.BADFLAGS:指定了非法标志。

    dns.BADFLAGS: Illegal flags specified.

  • dns.NONAME:给定的主机名不是数字。

    dns.NONAME: Given host name is not numeric.

  • dns.BADHINTS:指定了非法提示标志。

    dns.BADHINTS: Illegal hints flags specified.

  • dns.NOTINITIALIZED:c-ares 库初始化尚未执行。

    dns.NOTINITIALIZED: c-ares library initialization not yet performed.

  • dns.LOADIPHLPAPI:加载 iphlpapi.dll 时出错。

    dns.LOADIPHLPAPI: Error loading iphlpapi.dll.

  • dns.ADDRGETNETWORKPARAMS:找不到 GetNetworkParams 函数。

    dns.ADDRGETNETWORKPARAMS: Could not find GetNetworkParams function.

  • dns.CANCELLED:域名系统查询已取消。

    dns.CANCELLED: DNS query cancelled.

dnsPromises API 也导出上述错误代码,例如,dnsPromises.NODATA

The dnsPromises API also exports the above error codes, e.g., dnsPromises.NODATA.

实现的注意事项#

Implementation considerations

尽管 dns.lookup() 和各种 dns.resolve*()/dns.reverse() 函数具有将网络名称与网络地址相关联的相同目标(反之亦然),但它们的行为却大不相同。这些差异可能会对 Node.js 程序的行为产生微妙但重要的影响。

Although dns.lookup() and the various dns.resolve*()/dns.reverse() functions have the same goal of associating a network name with a network address (or vice versa), their behavior is quite different. These differences can have subtle but significant consequences on the behavior of Node.js programs.

dns.lookup()#

在幕后,dns.lookup() 使用与大多数其他程序相同的操作系统设施。例如,dns.lookup() 几乎总是以与 ping 命令相同的方式解析给定名称。在大多数类似 POSIX 的操作系统上,可以通过更改 nsswitch.conf(5) 和/或 resolv.conf(5) 中的设置来修改 dns.lookup() 函数的行为,但更改这些文件将更改正在运行的所有其他程序的行为 在同一操作系统上。

Under the hood, dns.lookup() uses the same operating system facilities as most other programs. For instance, dns.lookup() will almost always resolve a given name the same way as the ping command. On most POSIX-like operating systems, the behavior of the dns.lookup() function can be modified by changing settings in nsswitch.conf(5) and/or resolv.conf(5), but changing these files will change the behavior of all other programs running on the same operating system.

尽管从 JavaScript 的角度来看,对 dns.lookup() 的调用是异步的,但它是作为对在 libuv 线程池上运行的 getaddrinfo(3) 的同步调用来实现的。这可能会对某些应用产生令人惊讶的负面性能影响,有关更多信息,请参阅 UV_THREADPOOL_SIZE 文档。

Though the call to dns.lookup() will be asynchronous from JavaScript's perspective, it is implemented as a synchronous call to getaddrinfo(3) that runs on libuv's threadpool. This can have surprising negative performance implications for some applications, see the UV_THREADPOOL_SIZE documentation for more information.

各种网络 API 将在内部调用 dns.lookup() 来解析主机名。如果这是一个问题,则考虑使用 dns.resolve() 并使用地址而不是主机名将主机名解析为地址。此外,某些网络 API(例如 socket.connect()dgram.createSocket())允许替换默认解析器 dns.lookup()

Various networking APIs will call dns.lookup() internally to resolve host names. If that is an issue, consider resolving the host name to an address using dns.resolve() and using the address instead of a host name. Also, some networking APIs (such as socket.connect() and dgram.createSocket()) allow the default resolver, dns.lookup(), to be replaced.

dns.resolve()dns.resolve*()dns.reverse()#

dns.resolve(), dns.resolve*(), and dns.reverse()

这些函数的实现与 dns.lookup() 完全不同。它们不使用 getaddrinfo(3) 并且始终在网络上执行 DNS 查询。此网络通信始终异步完成,不使用 libuv 的线程池。

These functions are implemented quite differently than dns.lookup(). They do not use getaddrinfo(3) and they always perform a DNS query on the network. This network communication is always done asynchronously and does not use libuv's threadpool.

因此,这些函数不会对发生在 libuv 线程池上的其他处理产生与 dns.lookup() 相同的负面影响。

As a result, these functions cannot have the same negative impact on other processing that happens on libuv's threadpool that dns.lookup() can have.

它们不使用 dns.lookup() 使用的同一组配置文件。例如,他们不使用来自 /etc/hosts 的配置。

They do not use the same set of configuration files that dns.lookup() uses. For instance, they do not use the configuration from /etc/hosts.