Node.js v12.9.0 文档


目录

crypto(加密)#

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稳定性: 2 - 稳定

crypto 模块提供了加密功能,包括对 OpenSSL 的哈希、HMAC、加密、解密、签名、以及验证功能的一整套封装。

使用 require('crypto') 来访问该模块。

const crypto = require('crypto');

const secret = 'abcdefg';
const hash = crypto.createHmac('sha256', secret)
                   .update('I love cupcakes')
                   .digest('hex');
console.log(hash);
// 打印:
//   c0fa1bc00531bd78ef38c628449c5102aeabd49b5dc3a2a516ea6ea959d6658e

检测是否支持 crypto#

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可以在不包括支持 crypto 模块的情况下构建 Node.js,这时调用 require('crypto') 将导致抛出异常。

let crypto;
try {
  crypto = require('crypto');
} catch (err) {
  console.log('不支持 crypto');
}

Certificate 类#

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SPKAC 最初是由 Netscape 实现的一种证书签名请求机制, 现在正式成为 HTML5 的 keygen 元素的一部分。

不推荐使用 <keygen>,因为 HTML 5.2 和新项目不再使用此元素。

crypto 模块提供 Certificate 类用于处理 SPKAC 数据。 最普遍的用法是处理 HTML5 keygen 元素产生的输出。 Node.js 内部使用 [OpenSSL 的 SPKAC 实现 处理。

Certificate.exportChallenge(spkac)#

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const { Certificate } = require('crypto');
const spkac = getSpkacSomehow();
const challenge = Certificate.exportChallenge(spkac);
console.log(challenge.toString('utf8'));
// 以 UTF 字符串的形式打印 challenge。

Certificate.exportPublicKey(spkac[, encoding])#

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const { Certificate } = require('crypto');
const spkac = getSpkacSomehow();
const publicKey = Certificate.exportPublicKey(spkac);
console.log(publicKey);
// Prints: the public key as <Buffer ...>

Certificate.verifySpkac(spkac)#

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const { Certificate } = require('crypto');
const spkac = getSpkacSomehow();
console.log(Certificate.verifySpkac(Buffer.from(spkac)));
// 打印 true 或 false。

遗留的 API#

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As a still supported legacy interface, it is possible (but not recommended) to create new instances of the crypto.Certificate class as illustrated in the examples below.

new crypto.Certificate()#

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Instances of the Certificate class can be created using the new keyword or by calling crypto.Certificate() as a function:

const crypto = require('crypto');

const cert1 = new crypto.Certificate();
const cert2 = crypto.Certificate();

certificate.exportChallenge(spkac)#

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const cert = require('crypto').Certificate();
const spkac = getSpkacSomehow();
const challenge = cert.exportChallenge(spkac);
console.log(challenge.toString('utf8'));
// Prints: the challenge as a UTF8 string

certificate.exportPublicKey(spkac)#

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const cert = require('crypto').Certificate();
const spkac = getSpkacSomehow();
const publicKey = cert.exportPublicKey(spkac);
console.log(publicKey);
// Prints: the public key as <Buffer ...>

certificate.verifySpkac(spkac)#

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const cert = require('crypto').Certificate();
const spkac = getSpkacSomehow();
console.log(cert.verifySpkac(Buffer.from(spkac)));
// Prints: true or false

Cipher 类#

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Cipher 类的实例用于加密数据。 这个类可以用在以下两种方法中的一种:

  • 作为,既可读又可写,未加密数据的编写是为了在可读的方面生成加密的数据。
  • 使用 cipher.update()cipher.final() 方法产生加密的数据。

crypto.createCipher()crypto.createCipheriv() 方法用于创建 Cipher 实例。 Cipher 对象不能直接使用 new 关键字创建。

示例,使用Cipher 对象作为流:

const crypto = require('crypto');

const algorithm = 'aes-192-cbc';
const password = 'Password used to generate key';
// 密钥长度取决于算法。 
// 在这种情况下,对于 aes192,它是 24 字节(192 位)。
// 改为使用异步的 `crypto.scrypt()`。
const key = crypto.scryptSync(password, 'salt', 24);
// 使用 `crypto.randomBytes()` 生成随机 iv 而不是此处显示的静态 iv。
const iv = Buffer.alloc(16, 0); // 初始化向量。

const cipher = crypto.createCipheriv(algorithm, key, iv);

let encrypted = '';
cipher.on('readable', () => {
  let chunk;
  while (null !== (chunk = cipher.read())) {
    encrypted += chunk.toString('hex');
  }
});
cipher.on('end', () => {
  console.log(encrypted);
  // 打印: e5f79c5915c02171eec6b212d5520d44480993d7d622a7c4c2da32f6efda0ffa
});

cipher.write('some clear text data');
cipher.end();

示例,使用 Cipher 和管道流:

const crypto = require('crypto');
const fs = require('fs');

const algorithm = 'aes-192-cbc';
const password = 'Password used to generate key';
// 改为使用异步的 `crypto.scrypt()`。
const key = crypto.scryptSync(password, 'salt', 24);
// 使用 `crypto.randomBytes()` 生成随机 iv 而不是此处显示的静态 iv。
const iv = Buffer.alloc(16, 0); // 初始化向量。

const cipher = crypto.createCipheriv(algorithm, key, iv);

const input = fs.createReadStream('test.js');
const output = fs.createWriteStream('test.enc');

input.pipe(cipher).pipe(output);

示例,使用 cipher.update()cipher.final() 方法:

const crypto = require('crypto');

const algorithm = 'aes-192-cbc';
const password = 'Password used to generate key';
// 改为使用异步的 `crypto.scrypt()`。
const key = crypto.scryptSync(password, 'salt', 24);
// 使用 `crypto.randomBytes()` 生成随机 iv 而不是此处显示的静态 iv。
const iv = Buffer.alloc(16, 0); // 初始化向量。

const cipher = crypto.createCipheriv(algorithm, key, iv);

let encrypted = cipher.update('some clear text data', 'utf8', 'hex');
encrypted += cipher.final('hex');
console.log(encrypted);
// 打印: e5f79c5915c02171eec6b212d5520d44480993d7d622a7c4c2da32f6efda0ffa

cipher.final([outputEncoding])#

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  • outputEncoding <string> 返回值的字符编码
  • 返回: <Buffer> | <string> 任何剩余的加密内容。 如果指定了 outputEncoding,则返回一个字符串。 如果未提供 outputEncoding,则返回 Buffer

一旦 cipher.final() 方法被调用, Cipher 对象就不能再用于加密数据。 如果试图再次调用 cipher.final(),将会抛出一个错误。

cipher.setAAD(buffer[, options])#

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When using an authenticated encryption mode (GCM, CCM and OCB are currently supported), the cipher.setAAD() method sets the value used for the additional authenticated data (AAD) input parameter.

The options argument is optional for GCM and OCB. When using CCM, the plaintextLength option must be specified and its value must match the length of the plaintext in bytes. See CCM mode.

The cipher.setAAD() method must be called before cipher.update().

cipher.getAuthTag()#

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  • 返回: <Buffer> 当使用经验证的加密模式时(目前只支持 GCMCCMCCM), cipher.getAuthTag() 方法返回一个 Buffer,它包含已从给定数据计算后的认证标签。

cipher.getAuthTag() 方法只能在使用 cipher.final() 方法完全加密后调用。

cipher.setAutoPadding([autoPadding])#

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当使用块加密算法时, Cipher 类会自动添加填充到输入数据中,来适配相应块大小。 可调用 cipher.setAutoPadding(false) 禁用默认填充。

autoPaddingfalse 时,整个输入数据的长度必须是 cipher 块大小的倍数,否则 cipher.final() 将抛出一个错误。 禁用自动填充对于非标准填充是有用的,例如使用 0x0 代替 PKCS 填充。

cipher.setAutoPadding() 必须在 cipher.final() 之前被调用。

cipher.update(data[, inputEncoding][, outputencoding])#

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data 更新密码。 如果给定了 inputEncoding,则 data 参数是使用指定编码的字符串。 如果不给出 inputEncoding 的参数,则 data 必须是 BufferTypedArray 或者 DataView。 如果 data 是一个 BufferTypedArray 或者 DataView,则 inputEncoding 会被忽略。

outputEncoding 指定了加密数据的输出格式。 如果指定了 outputEncoding,则返回使用指定编码的字符串。 如果没有 outputEncoding 被提供,则返回 Buffer

cipher.update() 方法可以用新数据多次调用,直到 cipher.final() 被调用。 在 cipher.final() 之后调用 cipher.update() 将抛出错误。

Decipher 类#

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Decipher 类的实例用于解密数据。这个类可以用在以下两种方法中的一种:

  • 作为,既可读又可写,加密数据的编写是为了在可读的方面生成未加密的数据。
  • 使用 decipher.update()decipher.final() 方法产生未加密的数据。

crypto.createDecipher()crypto.createDecipheriv() 的方法用于创建Decipher实例。 Decipher 对象不能直接使用 new 关键字创建。

示例,使用 Decipher 对象作为流:

const crypto = require('crypto');

const algorithm = 'aes-192-cbc';
const password = 'Password used to generate key';
// 密钥长度取决于算法。 
// 在这种情况下,对于 aes192,它是 24 字节(192 位)。
// 改为使用异步的 `crypto.scrypt()`。
const key = crypto.scryptSync(password, 'salt', 24);
// IV 通常与密文一起传递。
const iv = Buffer.alloc(16, 0); // 初始化向量。

const decipher = crypto.createDecipheriv(algorithm, key, iv);

let decrypted = '';
decipher.on('readable', () => {
  while (null !== (chunk = decipher.read())) {
    decrypted += chunk.toString('utf8');
  }
});
decipher.on('end', () => {
  console.log(decrypted);
  // 打印: some clear text data
});

// 使用相同的算法,密钥和 iv 加密。
const encrypted =
  'e5f79c5915c02171eec6b212d5520d44480993d7d622a7c4c2da32f6efda0ffa';
decipher.write(encrypted, 'hex');
decipher.end();

示例,使用 Decipher 和管道流:

const crypto = require('crypto');
const fs = require('fs');

const algorithm = 'aes-192-cbc';
const password = 'Password used to generate key';
// 改为使用异步的 `crypto.scrypt()`。
const key = crypto.scryptSync(password, 'salt', 24);
// IV 通常与密文一起传递。
const iv = Buffer.alloc(16, 0); // 初始化向量。

const decipher = crypto.createDecipheriv(algorithm, key, iv);

const input = fs.createReadStream('test.enc');
const output = fs.createWriteStream('test.js');

input.pipe(decipher).pipe(output);

示例,使用 decipher.update()decipher.final() 方法:

const crypto = require('crypto');

const algorithm = 'aes-192-cbc';
const password = 'Password used to generate key';
// 改为使用异步的 `crypto.scrypt()`。
const key = crypto.scryptSync(password, 'salt', 24);
// IV 通常与密文一起传递。
const iv = Buffer.alloc(16, 0); // 初始化向量。

const decipher = crypto.createDecipheriv(algorithm, key, iv);

// 使用相同的算法,密钥和 iv 加密。
const encrypted =
  'e5f79c5915c02171eec6b212d5520d44480993d7d622a7c4c2da32f6efda0ffa';
let decrypted = decipher.update(encrypted, 'hex', 'utf8');
decrypted += decipher.final('utf8');
console.log(decrypted);
// 打印: some clear text data

decipher.final([outputEncoding])#

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  • outputEncoding <string> 返回值的字符编码
  • 返回: <Buffer> | <string> 任何剩余的解密内容。 如果指定了 outputEncoding,则返回一个字符串。 如果未提供 outputEncoding,则返回 Buffer

一旦 decipher.final() 方法被调用, Decipher 对象就不能再用于解密数据。 如果试图再次调用 decipher.final(),将会抛出一个错误。

decipher.setAAD(buffer[, options])#

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When using an authenticated encryption mode (GCM, CCM and OCB are currently supported), the decipher.setAAD() method sets the value used for the additional authenticated data (AAD) input parameter.

The options argument is optional for GCM. When using CCM, the plaintextLength option must be specified and its value must match the length of the plaintext in bytes. See CCM mode.

The decipher.setAAD() method must be called before decipher.update().

decipher.setAuthTag(buffer)#

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When using an authenticated encryption mode (GCM, CCM and OCB are currently supported), the decipher.setAuthTag() method is used to pass in the received authentication tag. If no tag is provided, or if the cipher text has been tampered with, decipher.final() will throw, indicating that the cipher text should be discarded due to failed authentication. If the tag length is invalid according to NIST SP 800-38D or does not match the value of the authTagLength option, decipher.setAuthTag() will throw an error.

The decipher.setAuthTag() method must be called before decipher.final() and can only be called once.

decipher.setAutoPadding([autoPadding])#

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When data has been encrypted without standard block padding, calling decipher.setAutoPadding(false) will disable automatic padding to prevent decipher.final() from checking for and removing padding.

Turning auto padding off will only work if the input data's length is a multiple of the ciphers block size.

The decipher.setAutoPadding() method must be called before decipher.final().

decipher.update(data[, inputEncoding][, outputencoding])#

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使用 data 更新解密。 如果给定了 inputEncoding,则 data 参数是使用指定编码的字符串。 如果不给出 inputEncoding 的参数,则 data 必须是 Buffer。 如果 data 是一个 Buffer,则 inputEncoding 会被忽略。

outputEncoding 指定了解密数据的输出格式。 如果指定了 outputEncoding,则返回使用指定编码的字符串。 如果没有 outputEncoding 被提供,则返回 Buffer

decipher.update() 方法可以用新数据多次调用,直到 decipher.final() 被调用。 在 decipher.final() 之后调用 decipher.update() 将抛出错误。

DiffieHellman 类#

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DiffieHellman 类是一个用来创建 Diffie-Hellman 键交换的工具。

DiffieHellman 类的实例可以使用 crypto.createDiffieHellman() 方法。

const crypto = require('crypto');
const assert = require('assert');

// 生成 Alice 的密钥。
const alice = crypto.createDiffieHellman(2048);
const aliceKey = alice.generateKeys();

// 生成 Bob 的密钥。
const bob = crypto.createDiffieHellman(alice.getPrime(), alice.getGenerator());
const bobKey = bob.generateKeys();

// 交换并生成密钥。
const aliceSecret = alice.computeSecret(bobKey);
const bobSecret = bob.computeSecret(aliceKey);

// 完成。
assert.strictEqual(aliceSecret.toString('hex'), bobSecret.toString('hex'));

diffieHellman.computeSecret(otherPublicKey[, inputEncoding][, outputencoding])#

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Computes the shared secret using otherPublicKey as the other party's public key and returns the computed shared secret. The supplied key is interpreted using the specified inputEncoding, and secret is encoded using specified outputEncoding. If the inputEncoding is not provided, otherPublicKey is expected to be a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView.

If outputEncoding is given a string is returned; otherwise, a Buffer is returned.

diffieHellman.generateKeys(encoding)#

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Generates private and public Diffie-Hellman key values, and returns the public key in the specified encoding. This key should be transferred to the other party. If encoding is provided a string is returned; otherwise a Buffer is returned.

diffieHellman.getGenerator(encoding)#

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Returns the Diffie-Hellman generator in the specified encoding. If encoding is provided a string is returned; otherwise a Buffer is returned.

diffieHellman.getPrime(encoding)#

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Returns the Diffie-Hellman prime in the specified encoding. If encoding is provided a string is returned; otherwise a Buffer is returned.

diffieHellman.getPrivateKey(encoding)#

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Returns the Diffie-Hellman private key in the specified encoding. If encoding is provided a string is returned; otherwise a Buffer is returned.

diffieHellman.getPublicKey(encoding)#

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Returns the Diffie-Hellman public key in the specified encoding. If encoding is provided a string is returned; otherwise a Buffer is returned.

diffieHellman.setPrivateKey(privateKey[, encoding])#

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Sets the Diffie-Hellman private key. If the encoding argument is provided, privateKey is expected to be a string. If no encoding is provided, privateKey is expected to be a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView.

diffieHellman.setPublicKey(publicKey[, encoding])#

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Sets the Diffie-Hellman public key. If the encoding argument is provided, publicKey is expected to be a string. If no encoding is provided, publicKey is expected to be a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView.

diffieHellman.verifyError#

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A bit field containing any warnings and/or errors resulting from a check performed during initialization of the DiffieHellman object.

The following values are valid for this property (as defined in constants module):

  • DH_CHECK_P_NOT_SAFE_PRIME
  • DH_CHECK_P_NOT_PRIME
  • DH_UNABLE_TO_CHECK_GENERATOR
  • DH_NOT_SUITABLE_GENERATOR

DiffieHellmanGroup 类#

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The DiffieHellmanGroup class takes a well-known modp group as its argument but otherwise works the same as DiffieHellman.

const name = 'modp1';
const dh = crypto.createDiffieHellmanGroup(name);

name is taken from RFC 2412 (modp1 and 2) and RFC 3526:

$ perl -ne 'print "$1\n" if /"(modp\d+)"/' src/node_crypto_groups.h
modp1  #  768 bits
modp2  # 1024 bits
modp5  # 1536 bits
modp14 # 2048 bits
modp15 # etc.
modp16
modp17
modp18

ECDH 类#

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ECDH 类是创建椭圆曲线 Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman(ECDH)键交换的实用工具。

ECDH 类的实例可以使用 crypto.createECDH() 方法。

const crypto = require('crypto');
const assert = require('assert');

// 生成 Alice 的密钥。
const alice = crypto.createECDH('secp521r1');
const aliceKey = alice.generateKeys();

// 生成 Bob 的密钥。
const bob = crypto.createECDH('secp521r1');
const bobKey = bob.generateKeys();

// 交换并生成密钥。
const aliceSecret = alice.computeSecret(bobKey);
const bobSecret = bob.computeSecret(aliceKey);

assert.strictEqual(aliceSecret.toString('hex'), bobSecret.toString('hex'));
// 完成

ECDH.convertKey(key, curve[, inputEncoding[, outputEncoding[, format]]])#

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Converts the EC Diffie-Hellman public key specified by key and curve to the format specified by format. The format argument specifies point encoding and can be 'compressed', 'uncompressed' or 'hybrid'. The supplied key is interpreted using the specified inputEncoding, and the returned key is encoded using the specified outputEncoding.

Use crypto.getCurves() to obtain a list of available curve names. On recent OpenSSL releases, openssl ecparam -list_curves will also display the name and description of each available elliptic curve.

If format is not specified the point will be returned in 'uncompressed' format.

If the inputEncoding is not provided, key is expected to be a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView.

Example (uncompressing a key):

const { createECDH, ECDH } = require('crypto');

const ecdh = createECDH('secp256k1');
ecdh.generateKeys();

const compressedKey = ecdh.getPublicKey('hex', 'compressed');

const uncompressedKey = ECDH.convertKey(compressedKey,
                                        'secp256k1',
                                        'hex',
                                        'hex',
                                        'uncompressed');

// The converted key and the uncompressed public key should be the same
console.log(uncompressedKey === ecdh.getPublicKey('hex'));

ecdh.computeSecret(otherPublicKey[, inputEncoding][, outputencoding])#

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Computes the shared secret using otherPublicKey as the other party's public key and returns the computed shared secret. The supplied key is interpreted using specified inputEncoding, and the returned secret is encoded using the specified outputEncoding. If the inputEncoding is not provided, otherPublicKey is expected to be a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView.

If outputEncoding is given a string will be returned; otherwise a Buffer is returned.

ecdh.computeSecret will throw an ERR_CRYPTO_ECDH_INVALID_PUBLIC_KEY error when otherPublicKey lies outside of the elliptic curve. Since otherPublicKey is usually supplied from a remote user over an insecure network, its recommended for developers to handle this exception accordingly.

ecdh.generateKeys([encoding[, format]])#

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Generates private and public EC Diffie-Hellman key values, and returns the public key in the specified format and encoding. This key should be transferred to the other party.

The format argument specifies point encoding and can be 'compressed' or 'uncompressed'. If format is not specified, the point will be returned in 'uncompressed' format.

If encoding is provided a string is returned; otherwise a Buffer is returned.

ecdh.getPrivateKey(encoding)#

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If encoding is specified, a string is returned; otherwise a Buffer is returned.

ecdh.getPublicKey([encoding][, format])#

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The format argument specifies point encoding and can be 'compressed' or 'uncompressed'. If format is not specified the point will be returned in 'uncompressed' format.

If encoding is specified, a string is returned; otherwise a Buffer is returned.

ecdh.setPrivateKey(privateKey[, encoding])#

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Sets the EC Diffie-Hellman private key. If encoding is provided, privateKey is expected to be a string; otherwise privateKey is expected to be a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView.

If privateKey is not valid for the curve specified when the ECDH object was created, an error is thrown. Upon setting the private key, the associated public point (key) is also generated and set in the ECDH object.

ecdh.setPublicKey(publicKey[, encoding])#

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稳定性: 0 - 废弃

Sets the EC Diffie-Hellman public key. If encoding is provided publicKey is expected to be a string; otherwise a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView is expected.

There is not normally a reason to call this method because ECDH only requires a private key and the other party's public key to compute the shared secret. Typically either ecdh.generateKeys() or ecdh.setPrivateKey() will be called. The ecdh.setPrivateKey() method attempts to generate the public point/key associated with the private key being set.

Example (obtaining a shared secret):

const crypto = require('crypto');
const alice = crypto.createECDH('secp256k1');
const bob = crypto.createECDH('secp256k1');

// This is a shortcut way of specifying one of Alice's previous private
// keys. It would be unwise to use such a predictable private key in a real
// application.
alice.setPrivateKey(
  crypto.createHash('sha256').update('alice', 'utf8').digest()
);

// Bob uses a newly generated cryptographically strong
// pseudorandom key pair
bob.generateKeys();

const aliceSecret = alice.computeSecret(bob.getPublicKey(), null, 'hex');
const bobSecret = bob.computeSecret(alice.getPublicKey(), null, 'hex');

// aliceSecret and bobSecret should be the same shared secret value
console.log(aliceSecret === bobSecret);

Hash 类#

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Hash 类是用于创建数据哈希值的工具类。它能用以下方法使用:

  • 作为,既可读又可写,数据被写入要在可读的方面生成一个计算散列摘要。
  • 使用 hash.update()hash.digest() 方法产生计算后的哈希。

crypto.createHash() 方法用于创建 Hash 实例。 Hash 不能直接使用 new 关键字创建对象。

示例,使用 Hash 对象作为流:

const crypto = require('crypto');
const hash = crypto.createHash('sha256');

hash.on('readable', () => {
  // 哈希流只会生成一个元素。
  const data = hash.read();
  if (data) {
    console.log(data.toString('hex'));
    // 打印:
    //   6a2da20943931e9834fc12cfe5bb47bbd9ae43489a30726962b576f4e3993e50
  }
});

hash.write('some data to hash');
hash.end();

示例,使用 Hash 和管道流:

const crypto = require('crypto');
const fs = require('fs');
const hash = crypto.createHash('sha256');

const input = fs.createReadStream('test.js');
input.pipe(hash).pipe(process.stdout);

示例,使用 hash.update()hash.digest() 方法:

const crypto = require('crypto');
const hash = crypto.createHash('sha256');

hash.update('some data to hash');
console.log(hash.digest('hex'));
// 打印:
//   6a2da20943931e9834fc12cfe5bb47bbd9ae43489a30726962b576f4e3993e50

hash.digest(encoding)#

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计算所有需要被哈希化的数据摘要 (通过 hash.update() 方法)。 如果提供了 encoding 则返回字符串,否则返回 Buffer

Hash 对象在 hash.digest() 方法调用之后不能再次被使用。多次的调用会引发错误并抛出。

hash.update(data[, inputEncoding])#

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用给定的 data 更新哈希内容,其编码在 inputEncoding 中给出。 如果未提供 encoding,并且 data 是字符串,则强制执行 'utf8' 的编码。 如果 data 是一个 BufferTypedArray 或者 DataView,则 inputEncoding 会被忽略。

在流式传输时,可以使用新数据多次调用此方法。

Hmac 类#

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Hmac 类是用于创建加密 Hmac 摘要的工具。它可以有两种用法:

  • 作为,它既可读又可写,数据被写入要在可读的方面生成一个经过计算的 HMAC 摘要。
  • 使 用hmac.update()hmac.digest() 方法产生计算后的 HMAC 摘要。

crypto.createHmac() 方法用来创建 Hmac 实例。 Hmac 不能直接使用 new 关键字创建对象。

示例,使用 Hmac 对象作为流:

const crypto = require('crypto');
const hmac = crypto.createHmac('sha256', 'a secret');

hmac.on('readable', () => {
  // 哈希流只会生成一个元素。
  const data = hmac.read();
  if (data) {
    console.log(data.toString('hex'));
    // 打印:
    //   7fd04df92f636fd450bc841c9418e5825c17f33ad9c87c518115a45971f7f77e
  }
});

hmac.write('some data to hash');
hmac.end();

示例,使用 Hmac 和管道流:

const crypto = require('crypto');
const fs = require('fs');
const hmac = crypto.createHmac('sha256', 'a secret');

const input = fs.createReadStream('test.js');
input.pipe(hmac).pipe(process.stdout);

示例,使用 hmac.update()hmac.digest() 方法:

const crypto = require('crypto');
const hmac = crypto.createHmac('sha256', 'a secret');

hmac.update('some data to hash');
console.log(hmac.digest('hex'));
// 打印:
//   7fd04df92f636fd450bc841c9418e5825c17f33ad9c87c518115a45971f7f77e

hmac.digest(encoding)#

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Calculates the HMAC digest of all of the data passed using hmac.update(). If encoding is provided a string is returned; otherwise a Buffer is returned;

The Hmac object can not be used again after hmac.digest() has been called. Multiple calls to hmac.digest() will result in an error being thrown.

hmac.update(data[, inputEncoding])#

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Updates the Hmac content with the given data, the encoding of which is given in inputEncoding. If encoding is not provided, and the data is a string, an encoding of 'utf8' is enforced. If data is a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView, then inputEncoding is ignored.

This can be called many times with new data as it is streamed.

KeyObject 类#

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Node.js uses a KeyObject class to represent a symmetric or asymmetric key, and each kind of key exposes different functions. The crypto.createSecretKey(), crypto.createPublicKey() and crypto.createPrivateKey() methods are used to create KeyObject instances. KeyObject objects are not to be created directly using the new keyword.

Most applications should consider using the new KeyObject API instead of passing keys as strings or Buffers due to improved security features.

keyObject.asymmetricKeyType#

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For asymmetric keys, this property represents the type of the key. Supported key types are:

  • 'rsa' (OID 1.2.840.113549.1.1.1)
  • 'rsa-pss' (OID 1.2.840.113549.1.1.10)
  • 'dsa' (OID 1.2.840.10040.4.1)
  • 'ec' (OID 1.2.840.10045.2.1)
  • 'x25519' (OID 1.3.101.110)
  • 'x448' (OID 1.3.101.111)
  • 'ed25519' (OID 1.3.101.112)
  • 'ed448' (OID 1.3.101.113)

This property is undefined for unrecognized KeyObject types and symmetric keys.

keyObject.export([options])#

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For symmetric keys, this function allocates a Buffer containing the key material and ignores any options.

For asymmetric keys, the options parameter is used to determine the export format.

For public keys, the following encoding options can be used:

  • type: <string> Must be one of 'pkcs1' (RSA only) or 'spki'.
  • format: <string> Must be 'pem' or 'der'.

For private keys, the following encoding options can be used:

  • type: <string> Must be one of 'pkcs1' (RSA only), 'pkcs8' or 'sec1' (EC only).
  • format: <string> Must be 'pem' or 'der'.
  • cipher: <string> If specified, the private key will be encrypted with the given cipher and passphrase using PKCS#5 v2.0 password based encryption.
  • passphrase: <string> | <Buffer> The passphrase to use for encryption, see cipher.

When PEM encoding was selected, the result will be a string, otherwise it will be a buffer containing the data encoded as DER.

PKCS#1, SEC1, and PKCS#8 type keys can be encrypted by using a combination of the cipher and format options. The PKCS#8 type can be used with any format to encrypt any key algorithm (RSA, EC, or DH) by specifying a cipher. PKCS#1 and SEC1 can only be encrypted by specifying a cipher when the PEM format is used. For maximum compatibility, use PKCS#8 for encrypted private keys. Since PKCS#8 defines its own encryption mechanism, PEM-level encryption is not supported when encrypting a PKCS#8 key. See RFC 5208 for PKCS#8 encryption and RFC 1421 for PKCS#1 and SEC1 encryption.

keyObject.symmetricKeySize#

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For secret keys, this property represents the size of the key in bytes. This property is undefined for asymmetric keys.

keyObject.type#

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Depending on the type of this KeyObject, this property is either 'secret' for secret (symmetric) keys, 'public' for public (asymmetric) keys or 'private' for private (asymmetric) keys.

Sign 类#

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Sign 类是生成签名的实用工具。它有两种使用方式:

crypto.createSign() 方法用于创建 Sign 实例,参数为即将用来生成 hash 值的函数名。 Sign 实例不能直接使用 new 关键字创建。

示例,像使用流对象一样使用 SignVerify 对象:

const crypto = require('crypto');

const { privateKey, publicKey } = crypto.generateKeyPairSync('ec', {
  namedCurve: 'sect239k1'
});

const sign = crypto.createSign('SHA256');
sign.write('some data to sign');
sign.end();
const signature = sign.sign(privateKey, 'hex');

const verify = crypto.createVerify('SHA256');
verify.write('some data to sign');
verify.end();
console.log(verify.verify(publicKey, signature));
// 打印 true 或 false。

示例,使用 sign.update()sign.sign() 方法:

const crypto = require('crypto');

const { privateKey, publicKey } = crypto.generateKeyPairSync('rsa', {
  modulusLength: 2048,
});

const sign = crypto.createSign('SHA256');
sign.update('some data to sign');
sign.end();
const signature = sign.sign(privateKey);

const verify = crypto.createVerify('SHA256');
verify.update('some data to sign');
verify.end();
console.log(verify.verify(publicKey, signature));
// 打印: true

sign.sign(privateKey[, outputEncoding])#

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Calculates the signature on all the data passed through using either sign.update() or sign.write().

If privateKey is not a KeyObject, this function behaves as if privateKey had been passed to crypto.createPrivateKey(). If it is an object, the following additional properties can be passed:

  • padding: <integer> - Optional padding value for RSA, one of the following:

    • crypto.constants.RSA_PKCS1_PADDING (default)
    • crypto.constants.RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING

    RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING will use MGF1 with the same hash function used to sign the message as specified in section 3.1 of RFC 4055, unless an MGF1 hash function has been specified as part of the key in compliance with section 3.3 of RFC 4055.

  • saltLength: <integer> - salt length for when padding is RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING. The special value crypto.constants.RSA_PSS_SALTLEN_DIGEST sets the salt length to the digest size, crypto.constants.RSA_PSS_SALTLEN_MAX_SIGN (default) sets it to the maximum permissible value.

If outputEncoding is provided a string is returned; otherwise a Buffer is returned.

The Sign object can not be again used after sign.sign() method has been called. Multiple calls to sign.sign() will result in an error being thrown.

sign.update(data[, inputEncoding])#

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Updates the Sign content with the given data, the encoding of which is given in inputEncoding. If encoding is not provided, and the data is a string, an encoding of 'utf8' is enforced. If data is a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView, then inputEncoding is ignored.

This can be called many times with new data as it is streamed.

Verify 类#

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Verify 类是验证签名的工具。它可以两种方式使用:

crypto.createVerify() 方法用于创建 Verify 实例。 Verify 对象不能直接使用 new 关键字创建。

有关示例,请参阅 Sign

verify.update(data[, inputEncoding])#

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Updates the Verify content with the given data, the encoding of which is given in inputEncoding. If inputEncoding is not provided, and the data is a string, an encoding of 'utf8' is enforced. If data is a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView, then inputEncoding is ignored.

This can be called many times with new data as it is streamed.

verify.verify(object, signature[, signatureEncoding])#

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Verifies the provided data using the given object and signature.

If object is not a KeyObject, this function behaves as if object had been passed to crypto.createPublicKey(). If it is an object, the following additional properties can be passed:

  • padding: <integer> - Optional padding value for RSA, one of the following:

    • crypto.constants.RSA_PKCS1_PADDING (default)
    • crypto.constants.RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING

    RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING will use MGF1 with the same hash function used to verify the message as specified in section 3.1 of RFC 4055, unless an MGF1 hash function has been specified as part of the key in compliance with section 3.3 of RFC 4055.

  • saltLength: <integer> - salt length for when padding is RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING. The special value crypto.constants.RSA_PSS_SALTLEN_DIGEST sets the salt length to the digest size, crypto.constants.RSA_PSS_SALTLEN_AUTO (default) causes it to be determined automatically.

The signature argument is the previously calculated signature for the data, in the signatureEncoding. If a signatureEncoding is specified, the signature is expected to be a string; otherwise signature is expected to be a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView.

The verify object can not be used again after verify.verify() has been called. Multiple calls to verify.verify() will result in an error being thrown.

Because public keys can be derived from private keys, a private key may be passed instead of a public key.

crypto 模块的方法和属性#

crypto.constants#

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  • Returns: <Object> An object containing commonly used constants for crypto and security related operations. The specific constants currently defined are described in Crypto Constants.

crypto.DEFAULT_ENCODING#

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稳定性: 0 - 废弃

The default encoding to use for functions that can take either strings or buffers. The default value is 'buffer', which makes methods default to Buffer objects.

The crypto.DEFAULT_ENCODING mechanism is provided for backwards compatibility with legacy programs that expect 'latin1' to be the default encoding.

New applications should expect the default to be 'buffer'.

This property is deprecated.

crypto.fips#

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稳定性: 0 - 废弃

Property for checking and controlling whether a FIPS compliant crypto provider is currently in use. Setting to true requires a FIPS build of Node.js.

This property is deprecated. Please use crypto.setFips() and crypto.getFips() instead.

crypto.createCipher(algorithm, password[, options])#

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稳定性: 0 - 废弃: 改为使用 crypto.createCipheriv()

Creates and returns a Cipher object that uses the given algorithm and password.

The options argument controls stream behavior and is optional except when a cipher in CCM or OCB mode is used (e.g. 'aes-128-ccm'). In that case, the authTagLength option is required and specifies the length of the authentication tag in bytes, see CCM mode. In GCM mode, the authTagLength option is not required but can be used to set the length of the authentication tag that will be returned by getAuthTag() and defaults to 16 bytes.

The algorithm is dependent on OpenSSL, examples are 'aes192', etc. On recent OpenSSL releases, openssl list -cipher-algorithms (openssl list-cipher-algorithms for older versions of OpenSSL) will display the available cipher algorithms.

The password is used to derive the cipher key and initialization vector (IV). The value must be either a 'latin1' encoded string, a Buffer, a TypedArray, or a DataView.

The implementation of crypto.createCipher() derives keys using the OpenSSL function EVP_BytesToKey with the digest algorithm set to MD5, one iteration, and no salt. The lack of salt allows dictionary attacks as the same password always creates the same key. The low iteration count and non-cryptographically secure hash algorithm allow passwords to be tested very rapidly.

In line with OpenSSL's recommendation to use a more modern algorithm instead of EVP_BytesToKey it is recommended that developers derive a key and IV on their own using crypto.scrypt() and to use crypto.createCipheriv() to create the Cipher object. Users should not use ciphers with counter mode (e.g. CTR, GCM, or CCM) in crypto.createCipher(). A warning is emitted when they are used in order to avoid the risk of IV reuse that causes vulnerabilities. For the case when IV is reused in GCM, see Nonce-Disrespecting Adversaries for details.

crypto.createCipheriv(algorithm, key, iv[, options])#

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Creates and returns a Cipher object, with the given algorithm, key and initialization vector (iv).

The options argument controls stream behavior and is optional except when a cipher in CCM or OCB mode is used (e.g. 'aes-128-ccm'). In that case, the authTagLength option is required and specifies the length of the authentication tag in bytes, see CCM mode. In GCM mode, the authTagLength option is not required but can be used to set the length of the authentication tag that will be returned by getAuthTag() and defaults to 16 bytes.

The algorithm is dependent on OpenSSL, examples are 'aes192', etc. On recent OpenSSL releases, openssl list -cipher-algorithms (openssl list-cipher-algorithms for older versions of OpenSSL) will display the available cipher algorithms.

The key is the raw key used by the algorithm and iv is an initialization vector. Both arguments must be 'utf8' encoded strings, Buffers, TypedArray, or DataViews. The key may optionally be a KeyObject of type secret. If the cipher does not need an initialization vector, iv may be null.

Initialization vectors should be unpredictable and unique; ideally, they will be cryptographically random. They do not have to be secret: IVs are typically just added to ciphertext messages unencrypted. It may sound contradictory that something has to be unpredictable and unique, but does not have to be secret; it is important to remember that an attacker must not be able to predict ahead of time what a given IV will be.

crypto.createDecipher(algorithm, password[, options])#

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稳定性: 0 - 废弃: 改为使用 crypto.createDecipheriv()

Creates and returns a Decipher object that uses the given algorithm and password (key).

The options argument controls stream behavior and is optional except when a cipher in CCM or OCB mode is used (e.g. 'aes-128-ccm'). In that case, the authTagLength option is required and specifies the length of the authentication tag in bytes, see CCM mode.

The implementation of crypto.createDecipher() derives keys using the OpenSSL function EVP_BytesToKey with the digest algorithm set to MD5, one iteration, and no salt. The lack of salt allows dictionary attacks as the same password always creates the same key. The low iteration count and non-cryptographically secure hash algorithm allow passwords to be tested very rapidly.

In line with OpenSSL's recommendation to use a more modern algorithm instead of EVP_BytesToKey it is recommended that developers derive a key and IV on their own using crypto.scrypt() and to use crypto.createDecipheriv() to create the Decipher object.

crypto.createDecipheriv(algorithm, key, iv[, options])#

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Creates and returns a Decipher object that uses the given algorithm, key and initialization vector (iv).

The options argument controls stream behavior and is optional except when a cipher in CCM or OCB mode is used (e.g. 'aes-128-ccm'). In that case, the authTagLength option is required and specifies the length of the authentication tag in bytes, see CCM mode. In GCM mode, the authTagLength option is not required but can be used to restrict accepted authentication tags to those with the specified length.

The algorithm is dependent on OpenSSL, examples are 'aes192', etc. On recent OpenSSL releases, openssl list -cipher-algorithms (openssl list-cipher-algorithms for older versions of OpenSSL) will display the available cipher algorithms.

The key is the raw key used by the algorithm and iv is an initialization vector. Both arguments must be 'utf8' encoded strings, Buffers, TypedArray, or DataViews. The key may optionally be a KeyObject of type secret. If the cipher does not need an initialization vector, iv may be null.

Initialization vectors should be unpredictable and unique; ideally, they will be cryptographically random. They do not have to be secret: IVs are typically just added to ciphertext messages unencrypted. It may sound contradictory that something has to be unpredictable and unique, but does not have to be secret; it is important to remember that an attacker must not be able to predict ahead of time what a given IV will be.

crypto.createDiffieHellman(prime[, primeEncoding][, generator][, generatorEncoding])#

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Creates a DiffieHellman key exchange object using the supplied prime and an optional specific generator.

The generator argument can be a number, string, or Buffer. If generator is not specified, the value 2 is used.

If primeEncoding is specified, prime is expected to be a string; otherwise a Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView is expected.

If generatorEncoding is specified, generator is expected to be a string; otherwise a number, Buffer, TypedArray, or DataView is expected.

crypto.createDiffieHellman(primeLength[, generator])#

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Creates a DiffieHellman key exchange object and generates a prime of primeLength bits using an optional specific numeric generator. If generator is not specified, the value 2 is used.

crypto.createDiffieHellmanGroup(name)#

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An alias for crypto.getDiffieHellman()

crypto.createECDH(curveName)#

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Creates an Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange object using a predefined curve specified by the curveName string. Use crypto.getCurves() to obtain a list of available curve names. On recent OpenSSL releases, openssl ecparam -list_curves will also display the name and description of each available elliptic curve.

crypto.createHash(algorithm[, options])#

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Creates and returns a Hash object that can be used to generate hash digests using the given algorithm. Optional options argument controls stream behavior. For XOF hash functions such as 'shake256', the outputLength option can be used to specify the desired output length in bytes.

The algorithm is dependent on the available algorithms supported by the version of OpenSSL on the platform. Examples are 'sha256', 'sha512', etc. On recent releases of OpenSSL, openssl list -digest-algorithms (openssl list-message-digest-algorithms for older versions of OpenSSL) will display the available digest algorithms.

Example: generating the sha256 sum of a file

const filename = process.argv[2];
const crypto = require('crypto');
const fs = require('fs');

const hash = crypto.createHash('sha256');

const input = fs.createReadStream(filename);
input.on('readable', () => {
  // Only one element is going to be produced by the
  // hash stream.
  const data = input.read();
  if (data)
    hash.update(data);
  else {
    console.log(`${hash.digest('hex')} ${filename}`);
  }
});

crypto.createHmac(algorithm, key[, options])#

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Creates and returns an Hmac object that uses the given algorithm and key. Optional options argument controls stream behavior.

The algorithm is dependent on the available algorithms supported by the version of OpenSSL on the platform. Examples are 'sha256', 'sha512', etc. On recent releases of OpenSSL, openssl list -digest-algorithms (openssl list-message-digest-algorithms for older versions of OpenSSL) will display the available digest algorithms.

The key is the HMAC key used to generate the cryptographic HMAC hash. If it is a KeyObject, its type must be secret.

Example: generating the sha256 HMAC of a file

const filename = process.argv[2];
const crypto = require('crypto');
const fs = require('fs');

const hmac = crypto.createHmac('sha256', 'a secret');

const input = fs.createReadStream(filename);
input.on('readable', () => {
  // Only one element is going to be produced by the
  // hash stream.
  const data = input.read();
  if (data)
    hmac.update(data);
  else {
    console.log(`${hmac.digest('hex')} ${filename}`);
  }
});

crypto.createPrivateKey(key)#

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Creates and returns a new key object containing a private key. If key is a string or Buffer, format is assumed to be 'pem'; otherwise, key must be an object with the properties described above.

If the private key is encrypted, a passphrase must be specified. The length of the passphrase is limited to 1024 bytes.

crypto.createPublicKey(key)#

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Creates and returns a new key object containing a public key. If key is a string or Buffer, format is assumed to be 'pem'; if key is a KeyObject with type 'private', the public key is derived from the given private key; otherwise, key must be an object with the properties described above.

If the format is 'pem', the 'key' may also be an X.509 certificate.

Because public keys can be derived from private keys, a private key may be passed instead of a public key. In that case, this function behaves as if crypto.createPrivateKey() had been called, except that the type of the returned KeyObject will be 'public' and that the private key cannot be extracted from the returned KeyObject. Similarly, if a KeyObject with type 'private' is given, a new KeyObject with type 'public' will be returned and it will be impossible to extract the private key from the returned object.

crypto.createSecretKey(key)#

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Creates and returns a new key object containing a secret key for symmetric encryption or Hmac.

crypto.createSign(algorithm[, options])#

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Creates and returns a Sign object that uses the given algorithm. Use crypto.getHashes() to obtain the names of the available digest algorithms. Optional options argument controls the stream.Writable behavior.

In some cases, a Sign instance can be created using the name of a signature algorithm, such as 'RSA-SHA256', instead of a digest algorithm. This will use the corresponding digest algorithm. This does not work for all signature algorithms, such as 'ecdsa-with-SHA256', so it is best to always use digest algorithm names.

crypto.createVerify(algorithm[, options])#

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Creates and returns a Verify object that uses the given algorithm. Use crypto.getHashes() to obtain an array of names of the available signing algorithms. Optional options argument controls the stream.Writable behavior.

In some cases, a Verify instance can be created using the name of a signature algorithm, such as 'RSA-SHA256', instead of a digest algorithm. This will use the corresponding digest algorithm. This does not work for all signature algorithms, such as 'ecdsa-with-SHA256', so it is best to always use digest algorithm names.

crypto.generateKeyPair(type, options, callback)#

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Generates a new asymmetric key pair of the given type. RSA, DSA, EC, Ed25519 and Ed448 are currently supported.

If a publicKeyEncoding or privateKeyEncoding was specified, this function behaves as if keyObject.export() had been called on its result. Otherwise, the respective part of the key is returned as a KeyObject.

It is recommended to encode public keys as 'spki' and private keys as 'pkcs8' with encryption for long-term storage:

const { generateKeyPair } = require('crypto');
generateKeyPair('rsa', {
  modulusLength: 4096,
  publicKeyEncoding: {
    type: 'spki',
    format: 'pem'
  },
  privateKeyEncoding: {
    type: 'pkcs8',
    format: 'pem',
    cipher: 'aes-256-cbc',
    passphrase: 'top secret'
  }
}, (err, publicKey, privateKey) => {
  // Handle errors and use the generated key pair.
});

On completion, callback will be called with err set to undefined and publicKey / privateKey representing the generated key pair.

If this method is invoked as its util.promisify()ed version, it returns a Promise for an Object with publicKey and privateKey properties.

crypto.generateKeyPairSync(type, options)#

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Generates a new asymmetric key pair of the given type. RSA, DSA, EC, Ed25519 and Ed448 are currently supported.

If a publicKeyEncoding or privateKeyEncoding was specified, this function behaves as if keyObject.export() had been called on its result. Otherwise, the respective part of the key is returned as a KeyObject.

When encoding public keys, it is recommended to use 'spki'. When encoding private keys, it is recommended to use 'pks8' with a strong passphrase, and to keep the passphrase confidential.

const { generateKeyPairSync } = require('crypto');
const { publicKey, privateKey } = generateKeyPairSync('rsa', {
  modulusLength: 4096,
  publicKeyEncoding: {
    type: 'spki',
    format: 'pem'
  },
  privateKeyEncoding: {
    type: 'pkcs8',
    format: 'pem',
    cipher: 'aes-256-cbc',
    passphrase: 'top secret'
  }
});

The return value { publicKey, privateKey } represents the generated key pair. When PEM encoding was selected, the respective key will be a string, otherwise it will be a buffer containing the data encoded as DER.

crypto.getCiphers()#

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  • Returns: <string[]> An array with the names of the supported cipher algorithms.
const ciphers = crypto.getCiphers();
console.log(ciphers); // ['aes-128-cbc', 'aes-128-ccm', ...]

crypto.getCurves()#

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  • Returns: <string[]> An array with the names of the supported elliptic curves.
const curves = crypto.getCurves();
console.log(curves); // ['Oakley-EC2N-3', 'Oakley-EC2N-4', ...]

crypto.getDiffieHellman(groupName)#

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Creates a predefined DiffieHellman key exchange object. The supported groups are: 'modp1', 'modp2', 'modp5' (defined in RFC 2412, but see Caveats) and 'modp14', 'modp15', 'modp16', 'modp17', 'modp18' (defined in RFC 3526). The returned object mimics the interface of objects created by crypto.createDiffieHellman(), but will not allow changing the keys (with diffieHellman.setPublicKey(), for example). The advantage of using this method is that the parties do not have to generate nor exchange a group modulus beforehand, saving both processor and communication time.

Example (obtaining a shared secret):

const crypto = require('crypto');
const alice = crypto.getDiffieHellman('modp14');
const bob = crypto.getDiffieHellman('modp14');

alice.generateKeys();
bob.generateKeys();

const aliceSecret = alice.computeSecret(bob.getPublicKey(), null, 'hex');
const bobSecret = bob.computeSecret(alice.getPublicKey(), null, 'hex');

/* aliceSecret and bobSecret should be the same */
console.log(aliceSecret === bobSecret);

crypto.getFips()#

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  • Returns: <boolean> true if and only if a FIPS compliant crypto provider is currently in use.

crypto.getHashes()#

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  • Returns: <string[]> An array of the names of the supported hash algorithms, such as 'RSA-SHA256'. Hash algorithms are also called "digest" algorithms.
const hashes = crypto.getHashes();
console.log(hashes); // ['DSA', 'DSA-SHA', 'DSA-SHA1', ...]

crypto.pbkdf2(password, salt, iterations, keylen, digest, callback)#

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Provides an asynchronous Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2 (PBKDF2) implementation. A selected HMAC digest algorithm specified by digest is applied to derive a key of the requested byte length (keylen) from the password, salt and iterations.

The supplied callback function is called with two arguments: err and derivedKey. If an error occurs while deriving the key, err will be set; otherwise err will be null. By default, the successfully generated derivedKey will be passed to the callback as a Buffer. An error will be thrown if any of the input arguments specify invalid values or types.

If digest is null, 'sha1' will be used. This behavior is deprecated, please specify a digest explicitly.

The iterations argument must be a number set as high as possible. The higher the number of iterations, the more secure the derived key will be, but will take a longer amount of time to complete.

The salt should be as unique as possible. It is recommended that a salt is random and at least 16 bytes long. See NIST SP 800-132 for details.

const crypto = require('crypto');
crypto.pbkdf2('secret', 'salt', 100000, 64, 'sha512', (err, derivedKey) => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(derivedKey.toString('hex'));  // '3745e48...08d59ae'
});

The crypto.DEFAULT_ENCODING property can be used to change the way the derivedKey is passed to the callback. This property, however, has been deprecated and use should be avoided.

const crypto = require('crypto');
crypto.DEFAULT_ENCODING = 'hex';
crypto.pbkdf2('secret', 'salt', 100000, 512, 'sha512', (err, derivedKey) => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(derivedKey);  // '3745e48...aa39b34'
});

An array of supported digest functions can be retrieved using crypto.getHashes().

This API uses libuv's threadpool, which can have surprising and negative performance implications for some applications; see the UV_THREADPOOL_SIZE documentation for more information.

crypto.pbkdf2Sync(password, salt, iterations, keylen, digest)#

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Provides a synchronous Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2 (PBKDF2) implementation. A selected HMAC digest algorithm specified by digest is applied to derive a key of the requested byte length (keylen) from the password, salt and iterations.

If an error occurs an Error will be thrown, otherwise the derived key will be returned as a Buffer.

If digest is null, 'sha1' will be used. This behavior is deprecated, please specify a digest explicitly.

The iterations argument must be a number set as high as possible. The higher the number of iterations, the more secure the derived key will be, but will take a longer amount of time to complete.

The salt should be as unique as possible. It is recommended that a salt is random and at least 16 bytes long. See NIST SP 800-132 for details.

const crypto = require('crypto');
const key = crypto.pbkdf2Sync('secret', 'salt', 100000, 64, 'sha512');
console.log(key.toString('hex'));  // '3745e48...08d59ae'

The crypto.DEFAULT_ENCODING property may be used to change the way the derivedKey is returned. This property, however, is deprecated and use should be avoided.

const crypto = require('crypto');
crypto.DEFAULT_ENCODING = 'hex';
const key = crypto.pbkdf2Sync('secret', 'salt', 100000, 512, 'sha512');
console.log(key);  // '3745e48...aa39b34'

An array of supported digest functions can be retrieved using crypto.getHashes().

crypto.privateDecrypt(privateKey, buffer)#

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Decrypts buffer with privateKey. buffer was previously encrypted using the corresponding public key, for example using crypto.publicEncrypt().

If privateKey is not a KeyObject, this function behaves as if privateKey had been passed to crypto.createPrivateKey(). If it is an object, the padding property can be passed. Otherwise, this function uses RSA_PKCS1_OAEP_PADDING.

crypto.privateEncrypt(privateKey, buffer)#

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Encrypts buffer with privateKey. The returned data can be decrypted using the corresponding public key, for example using crypto.publicDecrypt().

If privateKey is not a KeyObject, this function behaves as if privateKey had been passed to crypto.createPrivateKey(). If it is an object, the padding property can be passed. Otherwise, this function uses RSA_PKCS1_PADDING.

crypto.publicDecrypt(key, buffer)#

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Decrypts buffer with key.buffer was previously encrypted using the corresponding private key, for example using crypto.privateEncrypt().

If key is not a KeyObject, this function behaves as if key had been passed to crypto.createPublicKey(). If it is an object, the padding property can be passed. Otherwise, this function uses RSA_PKCS1_PADDING.

Because RSA public keys can be derived from private keys, a private key may be passed instead of a public key.

crypto.publicEncrypt(key, buffer)#

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Encrypts the content of buffer with key and returns a new Buffer with encrypted content. The returned data can be decrypted using the corresponding private key, for example using crypto.privateDecrypt().

If key is not a KeyObject, this function behaves as if key had been passed to crypto.createPublicKey(). If it is an object, the padding property can be passed. Otherwise, this function uses RSA_PKCS1_OAEP_PADDING.

Because RSA public keys can be derived from private keys, a private key may be passed instead of a public key.

crypto.randomBytes(size[, callback])#

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生成加密强伪随机数据。 size 参数是指示要生成的字节数的数值。

如果提供 callback 函数,则这些字节是异步生成的并且使用两个参数调用 callback 函数:errbuf。 如果发生错误,则 err 是一个 Error 对象,否则为 nullbuf 参数是包含生成字节的 Buffer

// 异步的。
const crypto = require('crypto');
crypto.randomBytes(256, (err, buf) => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(`${buf.length} 位的随机数据: ${buf.toString('hex')}`);
});

如果未提供 callback 函数,则同步地生成随机字节并返回为 Buffer。 如果生成字节遇到问题,将会抛出一个错误。

// 同步的。
const buf = crypto.randomBytes(256);
console.log(
  `${buf.length} 位的随机数据: ${buf.toString('hex')}`);

crypto.randomBytes() 方法将在获得足够的熵之后完成。 这通常不会超过几毫秒。 只有在刚开启时才可能会阻塞更久,因为此时整个系统的熵不多。

这个 API 使用 libuv 的线程池,所以在某些时候可能会产生意外的性能问题,查看 UV_THREADPOOL_SIZE 的文档以了解更多信息。

crypto.randomBytes() 的异步版本在单个线程池请求中执行。 要最小化线程池任务长度变化,请在执行此操作时对大型的 randomBytes 请求进行分区,以完成客户端请求。

crypto.randomFillSync(buffer[, offset][, size])#

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Synchronous version of crypto.randomFill().

const buf = Buffer.alloc(10);
console.log(crypto.randomFillSync(buf).toString('hex'));

crypto.randomFillSync(buf, 5);
console.log(buf.toString('hex'));

// The above is equivalent to the following:
crypto.randomFillSync(buf, 5, 5);
console.log(buf.toString('hex'));

Any TypedArray or DataView instance may be passed as buffer.

const a = new Uint32Array(10);
console.log(Buffer.from(crypto.randomFillSync(a).buffer,
                        a.byteOffset, a.byteLength).toString('hex'));

const b = new Float64Array(10);
console.log(Buffer.from(crypto.randomFillSync(b).buffer,
                        b.byteOffset, b.byteLength).toString('hex'));

const c = new DataView(new ArrayBuffer(10));
console.log(Buffer.from(crypto.randomFillSync(c).buffer,
                        c.byteOffset, c.byteLength).toString('hex'));

crypto.randomFill(buffer[, offset][, size], callback)#

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This function is similar to crypto.randomBytes() but requires the first argument to be a Buffer that will be filled. It also requires that a callback is passed in.

If the callback function is not provided, an error will be thrown.

const buf = Buffer.alloc(10);
crypto.randomFill(buf, (err, buf) => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(buf.toString('hex'));
});

crypto.randomFill(buf, 5, (err, buf) => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(buf.toString('hex'));
});

// The above is equivalent to the following:
crypto.randomFill(buf, 5, 5, (err, buf) => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(buf.toString('hex'));
});

Any TypedArray or DataView instance may be passed as buffer.

const a = new Uint32Array(10);
crypto.randomFill(a, (err, buf) => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(Buffer.from(buf.buffer, buf.byteOffset, buf.byteLength)
    .toString('hex'));
});

const b = new Float64Array(10);
crypto.randomFill(b, (err, buf) => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(Buffer.from(buf.buffer, buf.byteOffset, buf.byteLength)
    .toString('hex'));
});

const c = new DataView(new ArrayBuffer(10));
crypto.randomFill(c, (err, buf) => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(Buffer.from(buf.buffer, buf.byteOffset, buf.byteLength)
    .toString('hex'));
});

This API uses libuv's threadpool, which can have surprising and negative performance implications for some applications; see the UV_THREADPOOL_SIZE documentation for more information.

The asynchronous version of crypto.randomFill() is carried out in a single threadpool request. To minimize threadpool task length variation, partition large randomFill requests when doing so as part of fulfilling a client request.

crypto.scrypt(password, salt, keylen[, options], callback)#

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Provides an asynchronous scrypt implementation. Scrypt is a password-based key derivation function that is designed to be expensive computationally and memory-wise in order to make brute-force attacks unrewarding.

The salt should be as unique as possible. It is recommended that a salt is random and at least 16 bytes long. See NIST SP 800-132 for details.

The callback function is called with two arguments: err and derivedKey. err is an exception object when key derivation fails, otherwise err is null. derivedKey is passed to the callback as a Buffer.

An exception is thrown when any of the input arguments specify invalid values or types.

const crypto = require('crypto');
// Using the factory defaults.
crypto.scrypt('secret', 'salt', 64, (err, derivedKey) => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(derivedKey.toString('hex'));  // '3745e48...08d59ae'
});
// Using a custom N parameter. Must be a power of two.
crypto.scrypt('secret', 'salt', 64, { N: 1024 }, (err, derivedKey) => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(derivedKey.toString('hex'));  // '3745e48...aa39b34'
});

crypto.scryptSync(password, salt, keylen[, options])#

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Provides a synchronous scrypt implementation. Scrypt is a password-based key derivation function that is designed to be expensive computationally and memory-wise in order to make brute-force attacks unrewarding.

The salt should be as unique as possible. It is recommended that a salt is random and at least 16 bytes long. See NIST SP 800-132 for details.

An exception is thrown when key derivation fails, otherwise the derived key is returned as a Buffer.

An exception is thrown when any of the input arguments specify invalid values or types.

const crypto = require('crypto');
// Using the factory defaults.
const key1 = crypto.scryptSync('secret', 'salt', 64);
console.log(key1.toString('hex'));  // '3745e48...08d59ae'
// Using a custom N parameter. Must be a power of two.
const key2 = crypto.scryptSync('secret', 'salt', 64, { N: 1024 });
console.log(key2.toString('hex'));  // '3745e48...aa39b34'

crypto.setEngine(engine[, flags])#

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Load and set the engine for some or all OpenSSL functions (selected by flags).

engine could be either an id or a path to the engine's shared library.

The optional flags argument uses ENGINE_METHOD_ALL by default. The flags is a bit field taking one of or a mix of the following flags (defined in crypto.constants):

  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_RSA
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_DSA
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_DH
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_RAND
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_EC
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_CIPHERS
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_DIGESTS
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_PKEY_METHS
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_PKEY_ASN1_METHS
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_ALL
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_NONE

The flags below are deprecated in OpenSSL-1.1.0.

  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_ECDH
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_ECDSA
  • crypto.constants.ENGINE_METHOD_STORE

crypto.setFips(bool)#

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Enables the FIPS compliant crypto provider in a FIPS-enabled Node.js build. Throws an error if FIPS mode is not available.

crypto.sign(algorithm, data, key)#

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Calculates and returns the signature for data using the given private key and algorithm. If algorithm is null or undefined, then the algorithm is dependent upon the key type (especially Ed25519 and Ed448).

If key is not a KeyObject, this function behaves as if key had been passed to crypto.createPrivateKey(). If it is an object, the following additional properties can be passed:

  • padding: <integer> - Optional padding value for RSA, one of the following:

    • crypto.constants.RSA_PKCS1_PADDING (default)
    • crypto.constants.RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING

    RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING will use MGF1 with the same hash function used to sign the message as specified in section 3.1 of RFC 4055.

  • saltLength: <integer> - salt length for when padding is RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING. The special value crypto.constants.RSA_PSS_SALTLEN_DIGEST sets the salt length to the digest size, crypto.constants.RSA_PSS_SALTLEN_MAX_SIGN (default) sets it to the maximum permissible value.

crypto.timingSafeEqual(a, b)#

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This function is based on a constant-time algorithm. Returns true if a is equal to b, without leaking timing information that would allow an attacker to guess one of the values. This is suitable for comparing HMAC digests or secret values like authentication cookies or

a and b must both be Buffers, TypedArrays, or DataViews, and they must have the same length.

Use of crypto.timingSafeEqual does not guarantee that the surrounding code is timing-safe. Care should be taken to ensure that the surrounding code does not introduce timing vulnerabilities.

crypto.verify(algorithm, data, key, signature)#

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Verifies the given signature for data using the given key and algorithm. If algorithm is null or undefined, then the algorithm is dependent upon the key type (especially Ed25519 and Ed448).

If key is not a KeyObject, this function behaves as if key had been passed to crypto.createPublicKey(). If it is an object, the following additional properties can be passed:

  • padding: <integer> - Optional padding value for RSA, one of the following:

    • crypto.constants.RSA_PKCS1_PADDING (default)
    • crypto.constants.RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING

    RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING will use MGF1 with the same hash function used to sign the message as specified in section 3.1 of RFC 4055.

  • saltLength: <integer> - salt length for when padding is RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING. The special value crypto.constants.RSA_PSS_SALTLEN_DIGEST sets the salt length to the digest size, crypto.constants.RSA_PSS_SALTLEN_MAX_SIGN (default) sets it to the maximum permissible value.

The signature argument is the previously calculated signature for the data.

Because public keys can be derived from private keys, a private key or a public key may be passed for key.

注意事项#

遗留的 stream 接口(Node.js v0.10 之前)#

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The Crypto module was added to Node.js before there was the concept of a unified Stream API, and before there were Buffer objects for handling binary data. As such, the many of the crypto defined classes have methods not typically found on other Node.js classes that implement the streams API (e.g. update(), final(), or digest()). Also, many methods accepted and returned 'latin1' encoded strings by default rather than Buffers. This default was changed after Node.js v0.8 to use Buffer objects by default instead.

ECDH 近期的变化#

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Usage of ECDH with non-dynamically generated key pairs has been simplified. Now, ecdh.setPrivateKey() can be called with a preselected private key and the associated public point (key) will be computed and stored in the object. This allows code to only store and provide the private part of the EC key pair. ecdh.setPrivateKey() now also validates that the private key is valid for the selected curve.

The ecdh.setPublicKey() method is now deprecated as its inclusion in the API is not useful. Either a previously stored private key should be set, which automatically generates the associated public key, or ecdh.generateKeys() should be called. The main drawback of using ecdh.setPublicKey() is that it can be used to put the ECDH key pair into an inconsistent state.

弱加密算法的支持#

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The crypto module still supports some algorithms which are already compromised and are not currently recommended for use. The API also allows the use of ciphers and hashes with a small key size that are too weak for safe use.

Users should take full responsibility for selecting the crypto algorithm and key size according to their security requirements.

Based on the recommendations of NIST SP 800-131A:

  • MD5 and SHA-1 are no longer acceptable where collision resistance is required such as digital signatures.
  • The key used with RSA, DSA, and DH algorithms is recommended to have at least 2048 bits and that of the curve of ECDSA and ECDH at least 224 bits, to be safe to use for several years.
  • The DH groups of modp1, modp2 and modp5 have a key size smaller than 2048 bits and are not recommended.

See the reference for other recommendations and details.

CCM 模式#

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CCM is one of the supported AEAD algorithms. Applications which use this mode must adhere to certain restrictions when using the cipher API:

  • The authentication tag length must be specified during cipher creation by setting the authTagLength option and must be one of 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 or 16 bytes.
  • The length of the initialization vector (nonce) N must be between 7 and 13 bytes (7 ≤ N ≤ 13).
  • The length of the plaintext is limited to 2 ** (8 * (15 - N)) bytes.
  • When decrypting, the authentication tag must be set via setAuthTag() before calling update(). Otherwise, decryption will fail and final() will throw an error in compliance with section 2.6 of RFC 3610.
  • Using stream methods such as write(data), end(data) or pipe() in CCM mode might fail as CCM cannot handle more than one chunk of data per instance.
  • When passing additional authenticated data (AAD), the length of the actual message in bytes must be passed to setAAD() via the plaintextLength option. This is not necessary if no AAD is used.
  • As CCM processes the whole message at once, update() can only be called once.
  • Even though calling update() is sufficient to encrypt/decrypt the message, applications must call final() to compute or verify the authentication tag.
const crypto = require('crypto');

const key = 'keykeykeykeykeykeykeykey';
const nonce = crypto.randomBytes(12);

const aad = Buffer.from('0123456789', 'hex');

const cipher = crypto.createCipheriv('aes-192-ccm', key, nonce, {
  authTagLength: 16
});
const plaintext = 'Hello world';
cipher.setAAD(aad, {
  plaintextLength: Buffer.byteLength(plaintext)
});
const ciphertext = cipher.update(plaintext, 'utf8');
cipher.final();
const tag = cipher.getAuthTag();

// Now transmit { ciphertext, nonce, tag }.

const decipher = crypto.createDecipheriv('aes-192-ccm', key, nonce, {
  authTagLength: 16
});
decipher.setAuthTag(tag);
decipher.setAAD(aad, {
  plaintextLength: ciphertext.length
});
const receivedPlaintext = decipher.update(ciphertext, null, 'utf8');

try {
  decipher.final();
} catch (err) {
  console.error('Authentication failed!');
  return;
}

console.log(receivedPlaintext);

crypto 常量#

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The following constants exported by crypto.constants apply to various uses of the crypto, tls, and https modules and are generally specific to OpenSSL.

OpenSSL 选项#

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Constant Description
SSL_OP_ALL Applies multiple bug workarounds within OpenSSL. See https://www.openssl.org/docs/man1.0.2/ssl/SSL_CTX_set_options.html for detail.
SSL_OP_ALLOW_UNSAFE_LEGACY_RENEGOTIATION Allows legacy insecure renegotiation between OpenSSL and unpatched clients or servers. See https://www.openssl.org/docs/man1.0.2/ssl/SSL_CTX_set_options.html.
SSL_OP_CIPHER_SERVER_PREFERENCE Attempts to use the server's preferences instead of the client's when selecting a cipher. Behavior depends on protocol version. See https://www.openssl.org/docs/man1.0.2/ssl/SSL_CTX_set_options.html.
SSL_OP_CISCO_ANYCONNECT Instructs OpenSSL to use Cisco's "speshul" version of DTLS_BAD_VER.
SSL_OP_COOKIE_EXCHANGE Instructs OpenSSL to turn on cookie exchange.
SSL_OP_CRYPTOPRO_TLSEXT_BUG Instructs OpenSSL to add server-hello extension from an early version of the cryptopro draft.
SSL_OP_DONT_INSERT_EMPTY_FRAGMENTS Instructs OpenSSL to disable a SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 vulnerability workaround added in OpenSSL 0.9.6d.
SSL_OP_EPHEMERAL_RSA Instructs OpenSSL to always use the tmp_rsa key when performing RSA operations.
SSL_OP_LEGACY_SERVER_CONNECT Allows initial connection to servers that do not support RI.
SSL_OP_MICROSOFT_BIG_SSLV3_BUFFER
SSL_OP_MICROSOFT_SESS_ID_BUG
SSL_OP_MSIE_SSLV2_RSA_PADDING Instructs OpenSSL to disable the workaround for a man-in-the-middle protocol-version vulnerability in the SSL 2.0 server implementation.
SSL_OP_NETSCAPE_CA_DN_BUG
SSL_OP_NETSCAPE_CHALLENGE_BUG
SSL_OP_NETSCAPE_DEMO_CIPHER_CHANGE_BUG
SSL_OP_NETSCAPE_REUSE_CIPHER_CHANGE_BUG
SSL_OP_NO_COMPRESSION Instructs OpenSSL to disable support for SSL/TLS compression.
SSL_OP_NO_QUERY_MTU
SSL_OP_NO_SESSION_RESUMPTION_ON_RENEGOTIATION Instructs OpenSSL to always start a new session when performing renegotiation.
SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2 Instructs OpenSSL to turn off SSL v2
SSL_OP_NO_SSLv3 Instructs OpenSSL to turn off SSL v3
SSL_OP_NO_TICKET Instructs OpenSSL to disable use of RFC4507bis tickets.
SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1 Instructs OpenSSL to turn off TLS v1
SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_1 Instructs OpenSSL to turn off TLS v1.1
SSL_OP_NO_TLSv1_2 Instructs OpenSSL to turn off TLS v1.2
SSL_OP_PKCS1_CHECK_1
SSL_OP_PKCS1_CHECK_2
SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE Instructs OpenSSL to always create a new key when using temporary/ephemeral DH parameters.
SSL_OP_SINGLE_ECDH_USE Instructs OpenSSL to always create a new key when using temporary/ephemeral ECDH parameters.
SSL_OP_SSLEAY_080_CLIENT_DH_BUG
SSL_OP_SSLREF2_REUSE_CERT_TYPE_BUG
SSL_OP_TLS_BLOCK_PADDING_BUG
SSL_OP_TLS_D5_BUG
SSL_OP_TLS_ROLLBACK_BUG Instructs OpenSSL to disable version rollback attack detection.

OpenSSL 引擎的常量#

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Constant Description
ENGINE_METHOD_RSA Limit engine usage to RSA
ENGINE_METHOD_DSA Limit engine usage to DSA
ENGINE_METHOD_DH Limit engine usage to DH
ENGINE_METHOD_RAND Limit engine usage to RAND
ENGINE_METHOD_EC Limit engine usage to EC
ENGINE_METHOD_CIPHERS Limit engine usage to CIPHERS
ENGINE_METHOD_DIGESTS Limit engine usage to DIGESTS
ENGINE_METHOD_PKEY_METHS Limit engine usage to PKEY_METHDS
ENGINE_METHOD_PKEY_ASN1_METHS Limit engine usage to PKEY_ASN1_METHS
ENGINE_METHOD_ALL
ENGINE_METHOD_NONE

其他 OpenSSL 常量#

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Constant Description
DH_CHECK_P_NOT_SAFE_PRIME
DH_CHECK_P_NOT_PRIME
DH_UNABLE_TO_CHECK_GENERATOR
DH_NOT_SUITABLE_GENERATOR
ALPN_ENABLED
RSA_PKCS1_PADDING
RSA_SSLV23_PADDING
RSA_NO_PADDING
RSA_PKCS1_OAEP_PADDING
RSA_X931_PADDING
RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING
RSA_PSS_SALTLEN_DIGEST Sets the salt length for RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING to the digest size when signing or verifying.
RSA_PSS_SALTLEN_MAX_SIGN Sets the salt length for RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING to the maximum permissible value when signing data.
RSA_PSS_SALTLEN_AUTO Causes the salt length for RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING to be determined automatically when verifying a signature.
POINT_CONVERSION_COMPRESSED
POINT_CONVERSION_UNCOMPRESSED
POINT_CONVERSION_HYBRID

crypto 常量#

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Constant Description
defaultCoreCipherList Specifies the built-in default cipher list used by Node.js.
defaultCipherList Specifies the active default cipher list used by the current Node.js process.