Node.js v11.14.0 文档


目录

命令行选项#

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Node.js 自带了各种命令行选项。 这些选项开放了内置的调试、执行脚本的多种方式、以及其他有用的运行时选项。

运行 man node 可在一个终端中查看操作手册。

概要#

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node [options] [V8 options] [script.js | -e "script" | -] [--] [arguments]

node inspect [script.js | -e "script" | <host>:<port>] …

node --v8-options

执行时不带参数,会启动 REPL

关于 node inspect 的更多信息,详见调试器文档。

选项#

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所有选项(包括 V8 选项)都允许单词用短划线(-)或下划线(_)分隔。

例如, --pending-deprecation 等同于 --pending_deprecation

-#

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Alias for stdin, analogous to the use of - in other command line utilities, meaning that the script will be read from stdin, and the rest of the options are passed to that script.

--#

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Indicate the end of node options. Pass the rest of the arguments to the script. If no script filename or eval/print script is supplied prior to this, then the next argument will be used as a script filename.

--abort-on-uncaught-exception#

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Aborting instead of exiting causes a core file to be generated for post-mortem analysis using a debugger (such as lldb, gdb, and mdb).

If this flag is passed, the behavior can still be set to not abort through process.setUncaughtExceptionCaptureCallback() (and through usage of the domain module that uses it).

--completion-bash#

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Print source-able bash completion script for Node.js.

$ node --completion-bash > node_bash_completion
$ source node_bash_completion

--diagnostic-report-directory=directory#

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Location at which the report will be generated.

--diagnostic-report-filename=filename#

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Name of the file to which the report will be written.

--diagnostic-report-on-fatalerror#

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Enables the report to be triggered on fatal errors (internal errors within the Node.js runtime such as out of memory) that lead to termination of the application, if --experimental-report is enabled. Useful to inspect various diagnostic data elements such as heap, stack, event loop state, resource consumption etc. to reason about the fatal error.

--diagnostic-report-on-signal#

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Enables report to be generated upon receiving the specified (or predefined) signal to the running Node.js process, if --experimental-report is enabled. The signal to trigger the report is specified through --diagnostic-report-signal.

--diagnostic-report-signal=signal#

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Sets or resets the signal for report generation (not supported on Windows). Default signal is SIGUSR2.

--diagnostic-report-uncaught-exception#

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Enables report to be generated on un-caught exceptions, if --experimental-report is enabled. Useful when inspecting JavaScript stack in conjunction with native stack and other runtime environment data.

--enable-fips#

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启动时启用符合 FIPS 标准的加密。 (需要 Node.js 使用 ./configure --openssl-fips 构建)

--experimental-modules#

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Enable experimental ES module support and caching modules.

--experimental-policy#

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Use the specified file as a security policy.

--experimental-repl-await#

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Enable experimental top-level await keyword support in REPL.

--experimental-report#

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Enable experimental diagnostic report feature.

--experimental-vm-modules#

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Enable experimental ES Module support in the vm module.

--force-fips#

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启动时强制使用符合 FIPS 标准的加密。 (无法通过脚本代码禁用。) (要求同 --enable-fips

--frozen-intrinsics#

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稳定性: 1 - 试验

Enable experimental frozen intrinsics like Array and Object.

Support is currently only provided for the root context and no guarantees are currently provided that global.Array is indeed the default intrinsic reference.

Code breakage is highly likely with this flag, especially since limited support for subclassing builtins is provided currently due to ECMA-262 bug https://github.com/tc39/ecma262/pull/1320.

Both of the above may change in future updates, which will be breaking changes.

--http-parser=library#

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Chooses an HTTP parser library. Available values are:

The default is legacy, unless otherwise specified when building Node.js.

This flag exists to aid in experimentation with the internal implementation of the Node.js http parser. This flag is likely to become a no-op and removed at some point in the future.

--icu-data-dir=file#

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指定 ICU 数据的加载路径。 (覆盖 NODE_ICU_DATA

--inspect-brk[=[host:]port]#

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Activate inspector on host:port and break at start of user script. Default host:port is 127.0.0.1:9229.

--inspect-port=[host:]port#

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Set the host:port to be used when the inspector is activated. Useful when activating the inspector by sending the SIGUSR1 signal.

Default host is 127.0.0.1.

See the security warning below regarding the host parameter usage.

--inspect[=[host:]port]#

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在主机端口上激活检查器。默认为127.0.0.1:9229。

V8检查器集成允许Chrome DevTools和IDE等工具调试和配置Node.js实例。 这些工具通过tcp端口附加到Node.js实例,并使用[Chrome Debugging Protocol][]调试协议进行通信.

注意:绑定检查器到公共的“IP:端口”组合是不安全的#

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Binding the inspector to a public IP (including 0.0.0.0) with an open port is insecure, as it allows external hosts to connect to the inspector and perform a remote code execution attack.

If specifying a host, make sure that either:

  • The host is not accessible from public networks.
  • A firewall disallows unwanted connections on the port.

More specifically, --inspect=0.0.0.0 is insecure if the port (9229 by default) is not firewall-protected.

See the debugging security implications section for more information.

--loader=file#

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Specify the file of the custom experimental ECMAScript Module loader.

--max-http-header-size=size#

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Specify the maximum size, in bytes, of HTTP headers. Defaults to 8KB.

--napi-modules#

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This option is a no-op. It is kept for compatibility.

--no-deprecation#

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静默废弃的警告。

--no-force-async-hooks-checks#

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Disables runtime checks for async_hooks. These will still be enabled dynamically when async_hooks is enabled.

--no-warnings#

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静默一切进程警告(包括废弃警告)。

--openssl-config=file#

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启动时加载 OpenSSL 配置文件。 在其他用途中,如果 Node.js 使用 ./configure --openssl-fips 构建,它可以用于启用符合 FIPS 标准的加密。

--pending-deprecation#

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Emit pending deprecation warnings.

Pending deprecations are generally identical to a runtime deprecation with the notable exception that they are turned off by default and will not be emitted unless either the --pending-deprecation command line flag, or the NODE_PENDING_DEPRECATION=1 environment variable, is set. Pending deprecations are used to provide a kind of selective "early warning" mechanism that developers may leverage to detect deprecated API usage.

--preserve-symlinks#

查看v10.x中文文档

Instructs the module loader to preserve symbolic links when resolving and caching modules.

By default, when Node.js loads a module from a path that is symbolically linked to a different on-disk location, Node.js will dereference the link and use the actual on-disk "real path" of the module as both an identifier and as a root path to locate other dependency modules. In most cases, this default behavior is acceptable. However, when using symbolically linked peer dependencies, as illustrated in the example below, the default behavior causes an exception to be thrown if moduleA attempts to require moduleB as a peer dependency:

{appDir}
 ├── app
 │   ├── index.js
 │   └── node_modules
 │       ├── moduleA -> {appDir}/moduleA
 │       └── moduleB
 │           ├── index.js
 │           └── package.json
 └── moduleA
     ├── index.js
     └── package.json

The --preserve-symlinks command line flag instructs Node.js to use the symlink path for modules as opposed to the real path, allowing symbolically linked peer dependencies to be found.

Note, however, that using --preserve-symlinks can have other side effects. Specifically, symbolically linked native modules can fail to load if those are linked from more than one location in the dependency tree (Node.js would see those as two separate modules and would attempt to load the module multiple times, causing an exception to be thrown).

The --preserve-symlinks flag does not apply to the main module, which allows node --preserve-symlinks node_module/.bin/<foo> to work. To apply the same behavior for the main module, also use --preserve-symlinks-main.

--preserve-symlinks-main#

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Instructs the module loader to preserve symbolic links when resolving and caching the main module (require.main).

This flag exists so that the main module can be opted-in to the same behavior that --preserve-symlinks gives to all other imports; they are separate flags, however, for backward compatibility with older Node.js versions.

Note that --preserve-symlinks-main does not imply --preserve-symlinks; it is expected that --preserve-symlinks-main will be used in addition to --preserve-symlinks when it is not desirable to follow symlinks before resolving relative paths.

See --preserve-symlinks for more information.

--prof#

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Generate V8 profiler output.

--prof-process#

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处理 V8 分析器的输出,通过使用 V8 选项 --prof 生成。

--redirect-warnings=file#

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Write process warnings to the given file instead of printing to stderr. The file will be created if it does not exist, and will be appended to if it does. If an error occurs while attempting to write the warning to the file, the warning will be written to stderr instead.

--throw-deprecation#

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抛出废弃的错误。

--title=title#

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Set process.title on startup.

--tls-cipher-list=list#

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指定备用的默认 TLS 加密列表。 (需要 Node.js 被构建为支持加密。(默认))

--trace-deprecation#

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打印废弃的堆栈跟踪。

--trace-event-categories#

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A comma separated list of categories that should be traced when trace event tracing is enabled using --trace-events-enabled.

--trace-event-file-pattern#

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Template string specifying the filepath for the trace event data, it supports ${rotation} and ${pid}.

--trace-events-enabled#

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Enables the collection of trace event tracing information.

--trace-sync-io#

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每当事件循环的第一帧之后检测到同步 I/O 时,打印堆栈跟踪。

--trace-warnings#

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打印进程警告的堆栈跟踪(包括废弃警告)。

--track-heap-objects#

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为堆快照追踪堆栈对象的分配。

--use-bundled-ca, --use-openssl-ca#

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Use bundled Mozilla CA store as supplied by current Node.js version or use OpenSSL's default CA store. The default store is selectable at build-time.

The bundled CA store, as supplied by Node.js, is a snapshot of Mozilla CA store that is fixed at release time. It is identical on all supported platforms.

Using OpenSSL store allows for external modifications of the store. For most Linux and BSD distributions, this store is maintained by the distribution maintainers and system administrators. OpenSSL CA store location is dependent on configuration of the OpenSSL library but this can be altered at runtime using environment variables.

See SSL_CERT_DIR and SSL_CERT_FILE.

--v8-options#

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打印 V8 命令行选项。

注意,V8 选项允许单词使用破折号(-)或下划线(_)分隔。

例如, --stack-trace-limit 等同于 --stack_trace_limit

--v8-pool-size=num#

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Set V8's thread pool size which will be used to allocate background jobs.

If set to 0 then V8 will choose an appropriate size of the thread pool based on the number of online processors.

If the value provided is larger than V8's maximum, then the largest value will be chosen.

--zero-fill-buffers#

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自动用 0 填充所有新分配的 [Buffer] 和 [SlowBuffer] 实例。

-c, --check#

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在不执行的情况下,对脚本进行语法检查。

-e, --eval "script"#

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把跟随的参数作为 JavaScript 来执行。 在 REPL 中预定义的模块也可以在 script 中使用。

Note: On Windows, using cmd.exe a single quote will not work correctly because it only recognizes double " for quoting. In Powershell or Git bash, both ' and " are usable.

-h, --help#

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打印 node 的命令行选项。 此选项的输出不如本文档详细。

-i, --interactive#

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打开 REPL,即使 stdin 看起来不像终端。

-p, --print "script"#

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-e 相同,但会打印结果。

-r, --require module#

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在启动时预加载指定的模块。

遵循 require() 的模块解析规则。 module 可以是一个文件的路径,或一个 node 模块名称。

-v, --version#

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打印 node 的版本号。

环境变量#

NODE_DEBUG=module[,…]#

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',' 分隔的应该打印调试信息的核心模块列表。

NODE_DEBUG_NATIVE=module[,…]#

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','-separated list of core C++ modules that should print debug information.

NODE_DISABLE_COLORS=1#

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当设为 1 时,不会在 REPL 中使用颜色。

NODE_EXTRA_CA_CERTS=file#

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当设置了此选项时,根 CA 证书(如 VeriSign)会被 file 指定的证书扩展。 文件应该包括一个或多个可信的 PEM 格式的证书。 如果文件丢失或有缺陷,则 process.emitWarning() 会触发一个消息。

注意,当一个 TLS 或 HTTPS 的客户端或服务器的 ca 选项的属性被显式地指定时,则指定的证书不会被使用。

NODE_ICU_DATA=file#

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ICU(Intl 对象)数据的数据路径。 当使用 small-icu 编译时,扩展链接的数据。

NODE_NO_WARNINGS=1#

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When set to 1, process warnings are silenced.

NODE_OPTIONS=options...#

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A space-separated list of command line options. options... are interpreted as if they had been specified on the command line before the actual command line (so they can be overridden). Node.js will exit with an error if an option that is not allowed in the environment is used, such as -p or a script file.

Node.js options that are allowed are:

  • --diagnostic-report-directory
  • --diagnostic-report-filename
  • --diagnostic-report-on-fatalerror
  • --diagnostic-report-on-signal
  • --diagnostic-report-signal
  • --diagnostic-report-uncaught-exception
  • --enable-fips
  • --experimental-modules
  • --experimental-repl-await
  • --experimental-report
  • --experimental-vm-modules
  • --force-fips
  • --frozen-intrinsics
  • --icu-data-dir
  • --inspect
  • --inspect-brk
  • --inspect-port
  • --loader
  • --max-http-header-size
  • --napi-modules
  • --no-deprecation
  • --no-force-async-hooks-checks
  • --no-warnings
  • --openssl-config
  • --pending-deprecation
  • --redirect-warnings
  • --require, -r
  • --throw-deprecation
  • --title
  • --tls-cipher-list
  • --trace-deprecation
  • --trace-event-categories
  • --trace-event-file-pattern
  • --trace-events-enabled
  • --trace-sync-io
  • --trace-warnings
  • --track-heap-objects
  • --use-bundled-ca
  • --use-openssl-ca
  • --v8-pool-size
  • --zero-fill-buffers

V8 options that are allowed are:

  • --abort-on-uncaught-exception
  • --max-old-space-size
  • --perf-basic-prof
  • --perf-basic-prof-only-functions
  • --perf-prof
  • --perf-prof-unwinding-info
  • --stack-trace-limit

NODE_PATH=path[:…]#

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':' 分隔的有模块搜索路径作前缀的目录列表。

注意,在 Windows 中,列表是用 ';' 分隔的。

NODE_PENDING_DEPRECATION=1#

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When set to 1, emit pending deprecation warnings.

Pending deprecations are generally identical to a runtime deprecation with the notable exception that they are turned off by default and will not be emitted unless either the --pending-deprecation command line flag, or the NODE_PENDING_DEPRECATION=1 environment variable, is set. Pending deprecations are used to provide a kind of selective "early warning" mechanism that developers may leverage to detect deprecated API usage.

NODE_PENDING_PIPE_INSTANCES=instances#

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Set the number of pending pipe instance handles when the pipe server is waiting for connections. This setting applies to Windows only.

NODE_PRESERVE_SYMLINKS=1#

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When set to 1, instructs the module loader to preserve symbolic links when resolving and caching modules.

NODE_REDIRECT_WARNINGS=file#

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When set, process warnings will be emitted to the given file instead of printing to stderr. The file will be created if it does not exist, and will be appended to if it does. If an error occurs while attempting to write the warning to the file, the warning will be written to stderr instead. This is equivalent to using the --redirect-warnings=file command-line flag.

NODE_REPL_HISTORY=file#

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用于存储持久性的 REPL 历史记录的文件的路径。 默认路径是 ~/.node_repl_history,可被该变量覆盖。 将值设为空字符串(""" ")会禁用持久性的 REPL 历史记录。

NODE_TLS_REJECT_UNAUTHORIZED=value#

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If value equals '0', certificate validation is disabled for TLS connections. This makes TLS, and HTTPS by extension, insecure. The use of this environment variable is strongly discouraged.

NODE_V8_COVERAGE=dir#

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When set, Node.js will begin outputting V8 JavaScript code coverage to the directory provided as an argument. Coverage is output as an array of

{
  "result": [
    {
      "scriptId": "67",
      "url": "internal/tty.js",
      "functions": []
    }
  ]
}

NODE_V8_COVERAGE will automatically propagate to subprocesses, making it easier to instrument applications that call the child_process.spawn() family of functions. NODE_V8_COVERAGE can be set to an empty string, to prevent propagation.

At this time coverage is only collected in the main thread and will not be output for code executed by worker threads.

OPENSSL_CONF=file#

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Load an OpenSSL configuration file on startup. Among other uses, this can be used to enable FIPS-compliant crypto if Node.js is built with ./configure --openssl-fips.

If the --openssl-config command line option is used, the environment variable is ignored.

SSL_CERT_DIR=dir#

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If --use-openssl-ca is enabled, this overrides and sets OpenSSL's directory containing trusted certificates.

Be aware that unless the child environment is explicitly set, this environment variable will be inherited by any child processes, and if they use OpenSSL, it may cause them to trust the same CAs as node.

SSL_CERT_FILE=file#

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If --use-openssl-ca is enabled, this overrides and sets OpenSSL's file containing trusted certificates.

Be aware that unless the child environment is explicitly set, this environment variable will be inherited by any child processes, and if they use OpenSSL, it may cause them to trust the same CAs as node.

UV_THREADPOOL_SIZE=size#

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Set the number of threads used in libuv's threadpool to size threads.

Asynchronous system APIs are used by Node.js whenever possible, but where they do not exist, libuv's threadpool is used to create asynchronous node APIs based on synchronous system APIs. Node.js APIs that use the threadpool are:

  • all fs APIs, other than the file watcher APIs and those that are explicitly synchronous
  • crypto.pbkdf2()
  • crypto.randomBytes(), unless it is used without a callback
  • crypto.randomFill()
  • dns.lookup()
  • all zlib APIs, other than those that are explicitly synchronous

Because libuv's threadpool has a fixed size, it means that if for whatever reason any of these APIs takes a long time, other (seemingly unrelated) APIs that run in libuv's threadpool will experience degraded performance. In order to mitigate this issue, one potential solution is to increase the size of libuv's threadpool by setting the 'UV_THREADPOOL_SIZE' environment variable to a value greater than 4 (its current default value). For more information, see the libuv threadpool documentation.