assert.throws(fn[, error][, message])


    期望函数 fn 抛出错误。

    Expects the function fn to throw an error.

    If specified, error can be a Class, RegExp, a validation function, a validation object where each property will be tested for strict deep equality, or an instance of error where each property will be tested for strict deep equality including the non-enumerable message and name properties. When using an object, it is also possible to use a regular expression, when validating against a string property. See below for examples.

    If specified, message will be appended to the message provided by the AssertionError if the fn call fails to throw or in case the error validation fails.

    Custom validation object/error instance:

    import assert from 'node:assert/strict';
    
    const err = new TypeError('Wrong value');
    err.code = 404;
    err.foo = 'bar';
    err.info = {
      nested: true,
      baz: 'text'
    };
    err.reg = /abc/i;
    
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        throw err;
      },
      {
        name: 'TypeError',
        message: 'Wrong value',
        info: {
          nested: true,
          baz: 'text'
        }
        // Only properties on the validation object will be tested for.
        // Using nested objects requires all properties to be present. Otherwise
        // the validation is going to fail.
      }
    );
    
    // Using regular expressions to validate error properties:
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        throw err;
      },
      {
        // The `name` and `message` properties are strings and using regular
        // expressions on those will match against the string. If they fail, an
        // error is thrown.
        name: /^TypeError$/,
        message: /Wrong/,
        foo: 'bar',
        info: {
          nested: true,
          // It is not possible to use regular expressions for nested properties!
          baz: 'text'
        },
        // The `reg` property contains a regular expression and only if the
        // validation object contains an identical regular expression, it is going
        // to pass.
        reg: /abc/i
      }
    );
    
    // Fails due to the different `message` and `name` properties:
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        const otherErr = new Error('Not found');
        // Copy all enumerable properties from `err` to `otherErr`.
        for (const [key, value] of Object.entries(err)) {
          otherErr[key] = value;
        }
        throw otherErr;
      },
      // The error's `message` and `name` properties will also be checked when using
      // an error as validation object.
      err
    );const assert = require('node:assert/strict');
    
    const err = new TypeError('Wrong value');
    err.code = 404;
    err.foo = 'bar';
    err.info = {
      nested: true,
      baz: 'text'
    };
    err.reg = /abc/i;
    
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        throw err;
      },
      {
        name: 'TypeError',
        message: 'Wrong value',
        info: {
          nested: true,
          baz: 'text'
        }
        // Only properties on the validation object will be tested for.
        // Using nested objects requires all properties to be present. Otherwise
        // the validation is going to fail.
      }
    );
    
    // Using regular expressions to validate error properties:
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        throw err;
      },
      {
        // The `name` and `message` properties are strings and using regular
        // expressions on those will match against the string. If they fail, an
        // error is thrown.
        name: /^TypeError$/,
        message: /Wrong/,
        foo: 'bar',
        info: {
          nested: true,
          // It is not possible to use regular expressions for nested properties!
          baz: 'text'
        },
        // The `reg` property contains a regular expression and only if the
        // validation object contains an identical regular expression, it is going
        // to pass.
        reg: /abc/i
      }
    );
    
    // Fails due to the different `message` and `name` properties:
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        const otherErr = new Error('Not found');
        // Copy all enumerable properties from `err` to `otherErr`.
        for (const [key, value] of Object.entries(err)) {
          otherErr[key] = value;
        }
        throw otherErr;
      },
      // The error's `message` and `name` properties will also be checked when using
      // an error as validation object.
      err
    );

    Validate instanceof using constructor:

    import assert from 'node:assert/strict';
    
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        throw new Error('Wrong value');
      },
      Error
    );const assert = require('node:assert/strict');
    
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        throw new Error('Wrong value');
      },
      Error
    );

    Validate error message using RegExp:

    Using a regular expression runs .toString on the error object, and will therefore also include the error name.

    import assert from 'node:assert/strict';
    
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        throw new Error('Wrong value');
      },
      /^Error: Wrong value$/
    );const assert = require('node:assert/strict');
    
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        throw new Error('Wrong value');
      },
      /^Error: Wrong value$/
    );

    Custom error validation:

    The function must return true to indicate all internal validations passed. It will otherwise fail with an AssertionError.

    import assert from 'node:assert/strict';
    
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        throw new Error('Wrong value');
      },
      (err) => {
        assert(err instanceof Error);
        assert(/value/.test(err));
        // Avoid returning anything from validation functions besides `true`.
        // Otherwise, it's not clear what part of the validation failed. Instead,
        // throw an error about the specific validation that failed (as done in this
        // example) and add as much helpful debugging information to that error as
        // possible.
        return true;
      },
      'unexpected error'
    );const assert = require('node:assert/strict');
    
    assert.throws(
      () => {
        throw new Error('Wrong value');
      },
      (err) => {
        assert(err instanceof Error);
        assert(/value/.test(err));
        // Avoid returning anything from validation functions besides `true`.
        // Otherwise, it's not clear what part of the validation failed. Instead,
        // throw an error about the specific validation that failed (as done in this
        // example) and add as much helpful debugging information to that error as
        // possible.
        return true;
      },
      'unexpected error'
    );

    error cannot be a string. If a string is provided as the second argument, then error is assumed to be omitted and the string will be used for message instead. This can lead to easy-to-miss mistakes. Using the same message as the thrown error message is going to result in an ERR_AMBIGUOUS_ARGUMENT error. Please read the example below carefully if using a string as the second argument gets considered:

    import assert from 'node:assert/strict';
    
    function throwingFirst() {
      throw new Error('First');
    }
    
    function throwingSecond() {
      throw new Error('Second');
    }
    
    function notThrowing() {}
    
    // The second argument is a string and the input function threw an Error.
    // The first case will not throw as it does not match for the error message
    // thrown by the input function!
    assert.throws(throwingFirst, 'Second');
    // In the next example the message has no benefit over the message from the
    // error and since it is not clear if the user intended to actually match
    // against the error message, Node.js throws an `ERR_AMBIGUOUS_ARGUMENT` error.
    assert.throws(throwingSecond, 'Second');
    // TypeError [ERR_AMBIGUOUS_ARGUMENT]
    
    // The string is only used (as message) in case the function does not throw:
    assert.throws(notThrowing, 'Second');
    // AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: Missing expected exception: Second
    
    // If it was intended to match for the error message do this instead:
    // It does not throw because the error messages match.
    assert.throws(throwingSecond, /Second$/);
    
    // If the error message does not match, an AssertionError is thrown.
    assert.throws(throwingFirst, /Second$/);
    // AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]const assert = require('node:assert/strict');
    
    function throwingFirst() {
      throw new Error('First');
    }
    
    function throwingSecond() {
      throw new Error('Second');
    }
    
    function notThrowing() {}
    
    // The second argument is a string and the input function threw an Error.
    // The first case will not throw as it does not match for the error message
    // thrown by the input function!
    assert.throws(throwingFirst, 'Second');
    // In the next example the message has no benefit over the message from the
    // error and since it is not clear if the user intended to actually match
    // against the error message, Node.js throws an `ERR_AMBIGUOUS_ARGUMENT` error.
    assert.throws(throwingSecond, 'Second');
    // TypeError [ERR_AMBIGUOUS_ARGUMENT]
    
    // The string is only used (as message) in case the function does not throw:
    assert.throws(notThrowing, 'Second');
    // AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]: Missing expected exception: Second
    
    // If it was intended to match for the error message do this instead:
    // It does not throw because the error messages match.
    assert.throws(throwingSecond, /Second$/);
    
    // If the error message does not match, an AssertionError is thrown.
    assert.throws(throwingFirst, /Second$/);
    // AssertionError [ERR_ASSERTION]

    Due to the confusing error-prone notation, avoid a string as the second argument.