封装 C++ 对象


还可以以允许使用 JavaScript new 运算符创建新实例的方式封装 C++ 对象/类:

It is also possible to wrap C++ objects/classes in a way that allows new instances to be created using the JavaScript new operator:

// addon.cc
#include <node.h>
#include "myobject.h"

namespace demo {

using v8::Local;
using v8::Object;

void InitAll(Local<Object> exports) {
  MyObject::Init(exports);
}

NODE_MODULE(NODE_GYP_MODULE_NAME, InitAll)

}  // namespace demo

Then, in myobject.h, the wrapper class inherits from node::ObjectWrap:

// myobject.h
#ifndef MYOBJECT_H
#define MYOBJECT_H

#include <node.h>
#include <node_object_wrap.h>

namespace demo {

class MyObject : public node::ObjectWrap {
 public:
  static void Init(v8::Local<v8::Object> exports);

 private:
  explicit MyObject(double value = 0);
  ~MyObject();

  static void New(const v8::FunctionCallbackInfo<v8::Value>& args);
  static void PlusOne(const v8::FunctionCallbackInfo<v8::Value>& args);

  double value_;
};

}  // namespace demo

#endif

In myobject.cc, implement the various methods that are to be exposed. Below, the method plusOne() is exposed by adding it to the constructor's prototype:

// myobject.cc
#include "myobject.h"

namespace demo {

using v8::Context;
using v8::Function;
using v8::FunctionCallbackInfo;
using v8::FunctionTemplate;
using v8::Isolate;
using v8::Local;
using v8::Number;
using v8::Object;
using v8::ObjectTemplate;
using v8::String;
using v8::Value;

MyObject::MyObject(double value) : value_(value) {
}

MyObject::~MyObject() {
}

void MyObject::Init(Local<Object> exports) {
  Isolate* isolate = exports->GetIsolate();
  Local<Context> context = isolate->GetCurrentContext();

  Local<ObjectTemplate> addon_data_tpl = ObjectTemplate::New(isolate);
  addon_data_tpl->SetInternalFieldCount(1);  // 1 field for the MyObject::New()
  Local<Object> addon_data =
      addon_data_tpl->NewInstance(context).ToLocalChecked();

  // Prepare constructor template
  Local<FunctionTemplate> tpl = FunctionTemplate::New(isolate, New, addon_data);
  tpl->SetClassName(String::NewFromUtf8(isolate, "MyObject").ToLocalChecked());
  tpl->InstanceTemplate()->SetInternalFieldCount(1);

  // Prototype
  NODE_SET_PROTOTYPE_METHOD(tpl, "plusOne", PlusOne);

  Local<Function> constructor = tpl->GetFunction(context).ToLocalChecked();
  addon_data->SetInternalField(0, constructor);
  exports->Set(context, String::NewFromUtf8(
      isolate, "MyObject").ToLocalChecked(),
      constructor).FromJust();
}

void MyObject::New(const FunctionCallbackInfo<Value>& args) {
  Isolate* isolate = args.GetIsolate();
  Local<Context> context = isolate->GetCurrentContext();

  if (args.IsConstructCall()) {
    // Invoked as constructor: `new MyObject(...)`
    double value = args[0]->IsUndefined() ?
        0 : args[0]->NumberValue(context).FromMaybe(0);
    MyObject* obj = new MyObject(value);
    obj->Wrap(args.This());
    args.GetReturnValue().Set(args.This());
  } else {
    // Invoked as plain function `MyObject(...)`, turn into construct call.
    const int argc = 1;
    Local<Value> argv[argc] = { args[0] };
    Local<Function> cons =
        args.Data().As<Object>()->GetInternalField(0).As<Function>();
    Local<Object> result =
        cons->NewInstance(context, argc, argv).ToLocalChecked();
    args.GetReturnValue().Set(result);
  }
}

void MyObject::PlusOne(const FunctionCallbackInfo<Value>& args) {
  Isolate* isolate = args.GetIsolate();

  MyObject* obj = ObjectWrap::Unwrap<MyObject>(args.Holder());
  obj->value_ += 1;

  args.GetReturnValue().Set(Number::New(isolate, obj->value_));
}

}  // namespace demo

To build this example, the myobject.cc file must be added to the binding.gyp:

{
  "targets": [
    {
      "target_name": "addon",
      "sources": [
        "addon.cc",
        "myobject.cc"
      ]
    }
  ]
}

Test it with:

// test.js
const addon = require('./build/Release/addon');

const obj = new addon.MyObject(10);
console.log(obj.plusOne());
// Prints: 11
console.log(obj.plusOne());
// Prints: 12
console.log(obj.plusOne());
// Prints: 13

The destructor for a wrapper object will run when the object is garbage-collected. For destructor testing, there are command-line flags that can be used to make it possible to force garbage collection. These flags are provided by the underlying V8 JavaScript engine. They are subject to change or removal at any time. They are not documented by Node.js or V8, and they should never be used outside of testing.

During shutdown of the process or worker threads destructors are not called by the JS engine. Therefore it's the responsibility of the user to track these objects and ensure proper destruction to avoid resource leaks.